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Full text of "Reading Naturalist."

The Reading Naturalist 



No. 45 




Published by the Reading and District 

Natural History Society 

1993 



BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL mSTORY) 

28JUN1993 

PRESENTED 

r.PMFRAL LIBRARY 



Price to Non-Members £2.50 



BRITI! 



28JUN1993 
THE READING NATURALIST 

©ENERALU*. 



No 45 for the year 1992 

The Journal of the 
Reading and District Natural History Society 



President 

Mr Michael FletcKer 
Hon. General Secretary 

Mrs Meryl Beek, 29 Morecambe Avenue, Reading 



Hon. Editor 

Mrs Frances E.M. Cook, 19 Donkin Hill, Caversham, Reading 

Editorial Sub-Committee 

The Editor, Mr Brian R. Baker, Dr Alan Brickstock, Mr Hugh Carter, 
Mr Michael V. Fletcher, Miss June Housden, Mrs Betty M. Newman, 

Honorary Recorders 

Botany: Mrs Betty M. Newman, Early Cottage, 25 Beech Lane, Earley, Reading 

Fungi: Dr Alan Brickstock, 25 Cockney Hill, Tilehurst, Reading 

Entomology: Mr Brian R. Baker, 25 Matlock Road, Caversham, Reading 

Vertebrates: Mr Hugh H. Carter, 10 Northbrook Road, Caversham Park Village, Reading 



CONTENTS 

Excursions 1991-1992 - Alan Brickstock 1 

Meetings 1991-1992 - Meryl Beek 3 

Obituary: A.M. Sandels - Shirley Townend 3 

Presidential Address, October 15 1992: On Sunshine - Jocelin Whitfield 4 

Brains Trust - Michael Fletcher 6 
Stand Up and Be Counted (Outings, Talks & Membership)-Alan Brickstock 9 

News! News! News! 11 

Recorder's Report for Botany - Betty M. Newman 13 

Recorder's Report for Fungi - Alan Brickstock 21 

Recorder's Report for Entomology - Brian R. Baker 29 

Recorder's Report for Other Invertebrates - Hugh H. Carter 39 

Recorder's Report for Vertebrates - Hugh H. Carter 40 

The Weather at Reading during 1992 - Russel D. Thompson 43 

EDITORIAL 

After my second year as Editor I have begun to realise what hard work it is! As my 
stamina begins to wane, I look with amazement at the dedication of some of the 
contributors and their reliability over many years. I ought to give names but am fearful 
that I may overlook some valuable input. To all those who have helped this year a big 
thankyou. I do, however, feel that if we could get help from some other members, we 
could spread the load more evenly. Tasks for which help would be valued for next 
year's production include: records and articles, word processing, artwork, collation, 
distribution, and last but not least, ideas. (If you are interested please see page 12 for 
more details). 

My advert thus ended, I must say that 1992 does seem to have been a good year, 
natural history-wise. The activities of the Society have gone on as usual, although it 
has been questioned whether participation at meetings and outings has declined 
recently. This is likely to be a discussion point within the Society over the next year. 
However, judging from the wealth of records which have been received by the 
Recorders this year, there certainly seems to be a lot of active field work being carried 
out in the Reading area. Of particular interest are the many comments, which came out 
in several of the reports, regarding changes in distribution patterns over the years, these 
do help illustrate the value of keeping a permanent published record of observations - 
so hopefully everybody's hard work is justified! 



EXCURSIONS 
Alan Brickstock 

Winter 1991-1992 

These commenced on November 9th 1991, when 7 members enjoyed a fine day in 
the Mortimer area. The weather was not so kind on December 14th: Eileen Holly's 
walk in the Henley area was cancelled due to freezing fog. The annual coastal outing, 
led as usual by Martin Sell, was to Slimbridge on a cold, rather misty day. An 
excellent variety of geese and ducks were enjoyed by a party of 15. Neville Diserens 
led 12 people on a morning walk around the Fox and Hounds gravel pit at Theale on 
February 15th. Although there was a cold wind, it was a fine, sunny day, with 
excellent viewing light and many species of birds were seen, including Shovelers, 
Goldeneye and Gadwall. The final winter walk was Dr Watson's annual Mosses and 
Liverworts excursion, this time to Silchester Common. Only seven people turned out 
for what was, as always, a most enjoyable and informative outing. 

Summer 1992 

Summer walks started at Padworth on a superb, warm, cloudless day. A party of 
13 enjoyed an excellent outing, seeing among other things a large Grass Snake, some 
fascinating bright blue beetles, a large number of Mute Swans and 10 Greylag Geese. 
Only five people, two of them guests, went on Eileen Holly's walk at Satwell to see 
Wild Daffodils, on April 18th. 

Very heavy rain beforehand no doubt put off some members for the dawn chorus 
walk round Theale gravel pits on May 9th. However, the rain virtually stopped at 
about 4.15 am, and 4.30 am saw Martin Sell and me the sole members of the party. 
Although rather cold, we two had a very good outing, with lots of warblers, including 
Sedge, Reed, Garden and one Grasshopper Warbler. Nightingales and Cuckoos were 
both heard and seen, and there was a possible sighting of a Hobby. Martin then 
enjoyed a solitary outing to the coast. 

May 16th at Cane End was a hot, sunny day, and 16 of us enjoyed an excellent 
walk, notable for the great number of specimens of Sanicle and also some Callitriche 
hamulata found in a pond by Sean O'Leary. Martin Sell led a party of 20 to Bernwood 
on May 23rd. A fine day, with lots of Green-winged Orchids in flower and tea taken 
in a hay meadow. What better for a summer day? In contrast, June 7th was a very 
misty day, more reminiscent of November, but eventually becoming quite warm. Only 
seven members went on this marvellous outing, led by Ken Grinstead. There were 
large numbers of Lesser Butterfly Orchids at Morgans Hill. It was then decided to go 
to Pusey Down NNR, rather than to the advertised Savernake Forest. Here there were 
thousands of Fragrant Orchids, in a wide variety of colours and about 60 Burnt-tip 
Orchids, among many other good things. 

The annual coach outing, on June 20th, was to the Seven Sisters Country Park on 
the South Downs, with a short call to Kithurst Hill on the way. There were large 
numbers of Common Spotted Orchids at Kithurst, but the hoped for Round-headed 
Rampion were not to be found. However, we did see the very uncommon Fly 
Honeysuckle here. Although very windy on the coast, it was a wonderful, hot, sunny 
day and the party of 40 enjoyed an excellent variety of shingle-growing flowers, 
including Houndstongue, Sea Wormwood, Sea Radish, Fennel and Yellow-horned 
Poppy. There were also lots of the very uncommon Star Thistle, which were still 
superb despite being only in bud. 



Brian Baker wrote the following report on the 26th annual mothing night which took 
place on July 3rd at Moor Copse Nature Reserve by kind permission of BBONT: 
Conditions for the barbecue, which precedes this event, were unusual to say the least, 
but Alan Brickstock came to our rescue by suggesting a tent be pitched in the partially 
flooded lay-by to shelter the spread which Jocelin Whitfield had so carefully prepared. 
For the 20 who braved the atrocious conditions, an hilarious evening ensued followed 
by a successful mothing session on the banks of the River Pang. The moths were 
undeterred by the rain and swarmed to the mercury vapour lamp below its sheltering 
fisherman's umbrella. Alan Brickstock kindly helped me to log 51 species of Macro- 
Lepidoptera - those of particular interest are mentioned in the entomology report. 

Michael Keith-Lucas led a party of 10 round the superb Runnymede Meadows on 
July 5th, on a dull but quite warm afternoon. An excellent variety of water and 
waterside plants were seen, including Great Water Parsnip, Narrow-leaved Water 
Plantain, Frogbit, Water Milfoil, Water Soldier, Jointed Rush and Orange Foxtail. We 
also watched a dragonfly catch and then eat a Meadow Brown butterfly. On July 25th, 
14 people led by Ken Grinstead enjoyed a lovely day at Inkpen where there was good 
downland flora, a number of butterflies and some early fungi. Afterwards the party 
visited Ham Hill, where there was a good variety of butterflies including Green-veined 
White and Chalk Hill Blue. Graham Vick at last had a dry day for his dragonfly outing 
on August 8th. Fourteen species were found, as well a lot of larvae. A pity there were 
only six people present. 

The second mothing 'evening', at Bowdown on August 21st, was dry with a clear 
sky. It became quite cool and the mothing went 'dead' soon after 1 am. However, 15 
people enjoyed a reasonable variety of species, with pride of place belonging to a rare 
Peacock moth. 

Michael Fletcher identified about 130 species of plants on Reading 'Rubbish 
Dumps' on September 21st. Sadly only five members were present. September 27th 
was a warm, sunny day for the outing to Westonbirt. There were some good patches of 
autumn colour and a few fungi. Jocelin Whitfield imparted a great deal of interesting 
information about the many species of trees. Once more attendance, at eight, was very 
disappointing. Finally, on October 4th, we had our first Fungus Foray of the season, at 
Sulham, with 21 present. This was a most superb foray with an amazing 154 species 
identified. 

Wednesday Afternoon Walks 

The number of people on the six Wednesday walks varied from three to eight. 
Apart from a few showers during the April walk, the weather was marvellously kind to 
us. The walks were all much enjoyed, marred only by an unfortunate accident at 
Nettlebed on June 17th. 

On August 19th at Arborfield Cross, the 103 species of plants recorded included 
two uncommon ones, found on the roadside verge at the very beginning of the walk, 
and growing about a foot apart: one specimen of Stinkweed or Annual Wall Rocket and 
two specimens of Lesser Snapdragon or Weasel's Snout. 120 species of plants were 
recorded on September 16th at Hambleden, as well as a number of fungi and 
butterflies. This was a glorious, sunny afternoon. 

Many thanks to Ken Thomas for working out and leading all these walks. They 
deserve many more people, as do all our outings - see separate article! 



MEETINGS 
Meryl Beek 

Once again a series of winter lectures have been held on Thursday evenings between 
October 1991 and March 1992. The Annual General Meeting on October 10th was 
followed by Jocelin Whitfield's Presidential Address 'Just Back from China', which she 
had visited only a few weeks before with her husband and staying on a University 
campus in the middle of Zhengzhou city. There were 40 members present. This was 
followed on October 24th by an excellent talk on 'Land Snails' by Dr June Chatfield 
(36 present), and another good evening, with 44 present, on November 7th, to hear Dr 
Anne Watson speak on the quite complicated subject of 'The Greenhouse Effect'. On 
November 21st 'The Reawakening of the Kennet and Avon Canal' was the subject 
addressed to 45 members, who were pleased to see slides of all the recent work. 

After Christmas, on January 9th, David Coles transported 44 members to his 'Travels 
in New Guinea'. At very short notice, on 23rd January, due to the illness of Bill 
Baker, Dr Michael Keith-Lucas gave 49 members a real insight into the 'Natural 
History of the Shetland Islands.' Very local sights were looked at when Adrian 
Lawson spoke on the 'Conservation of Urban Woodland' to 28 members. There was a 
good turnout of 46 for Gordon Wilson's 'Magic of Iceland' on February 20th, and 
finally on March 5th there were 40 present to hear Rev. Stephen Pittis introduce 'The 
World of Butterflies and Moths', where many got involved in answering questions that 
the speaker put to the meeting. 

OBITUARY 
A.M. Sandels (nee Simmonds) 1901-1992 

Nan Sandels had been a member of the Reading and District Natural History Society 
since 1945 and she attended meetings and excursions regularly except for the few years 
when she lived away from Reading. Though widely interested in all aspects of wildlife 
and conservation, she became particularly interested in botany. Her expertise on local 
flora made her an ideal member of the Reading Museum staff for many years. While 
there, she was responsible for the comprehensive display of clearly named wild flowers 
throughout the seasons and for the identification of specimens brought in by the public. 

She was President of the Society for the years 1948-51. It was during this period that 
she was instrumental in founding the 'Reading Naturalist'. Volume One appeared in 
1949 with her contribution being a paper on the 'Plants of Pamber and Silchester'. 

Together with two other former members, Kath Butler and Leonie Cobb, Nan Sandels 
(as a member of the Berkshire Flora Committee) did much preparatory work for 
Humphrey Bowen's (1968) 'Flora of Berkshire'. An energetic field botanist she would 
cycle many miles in search of particular species in order to map their distribution. 

She last attended a meeting of the Society in November 1989. To this day the 'Reading 
Naturalist' remains a fitting reminder of her dedication to the work of the Society. 
What better memorial to her can there be. 

Shirley Townend 



ON SUNSHINE 

Presidential Address, October 15th 1992 

Jocelin Whitfield 



I hope you think that sunshine is natural history. It drives the circulation of air and 
water. Plants depend on its energy and other living things feed on plants or plant 
eaters. Sunshine is the very source of life. 

I always feel our shadows should widen behind us as in a torch beam, but they 
don't. In fact they taper because the Sun is so big, it is looking at us, ever so slightly, 
from both sides. And yet it is so small that I can cover it with my little finger nail. 

I have trouble with the concept of size; my intellect understands but my imagination 
can't cope. Ten kilometres is a view; 100 km, you'd need a very clear day to see 
that; 1000 km is a satellite picture (we are now divorced from real experience); 
10,000 km - well, the diameter of the Earth is 12,742 km - so its that sort of size; 
but the Sun is 109 Earth diameters. A model of the Earth a foot across, like my globe, 
would be in proportion to a Sun whose diameter was the height of a very tall tree, a 
Wellingtonia perhaps. Think of a tall tree. But now it has to be so far away that you 
can cover it from top to base with your little finger nail, half a degree. The distance 
of the sun is two more orders of magnitude, 149,500,000 km. If I dashed off in a car 
at 70 m.p.h. I'd be nearing Bristol in one hour; it would take 1,327,960 hours to get to 
the Sun, and no comfort stops either. Any idea how long that is? It is about 152 
years, and you'd pass the moon in the first half year at 142 days. All our light and 
almost all our heat comes all that way. It takes 8 minutes. 

This week NASA's SETI programme (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is 
starting. It bothers me a bit, I haven't the patience. The nearest star is 4 light years 
away, and the sources being examined by the project are up to 80 light years away. 
Sending a question and waiting for an answer is going to be a slow business, a 
minimum of 8 years or up to 160 years. Are you still watching out there? 

The Sun which is at 6,000°C, emits radiation right across the spectrum from high 
energy X-rays and ultra-violet, through the visible light to infra-red and radio 
frequencies. At the distance of the Earth the total energy is about 1.5 kW/m 2 and that 
is what a satellite would receive in orbit, provided it was not in the Earth's shadow of 
course. 

At ground level we receive about 1 kW/m 2 or much less on a gloomy day. Some is 
scattered into space. The high energy radiations are absorbed in the atmosphere. The 
photons at these short wavelengths will knock electrons off atoms and can damage 
living cells. The ozone layer is particularly efficient at absorbing most of the ultra- 
violet radiation. Watch out, you Antarctic scientists, that you don't get badly sunburnt. 
I suppose sun cream absorbs ultra-violet too? 

Visible light is in the 400-700 nm range of wavelengths, with sufficient energy for 
the photon to change the energy levels of electrons in atoms, thereby activating 
chemical changes, such as those used in photosynthesis or, in the eye, in vision. Isn't 
it fun being able to see? We have these special pigments, the one in the rods sensitive 
to blue light, and two in the cones sensitive to red and green light, and if there's lots of 
light they are bleached and we are dazzled until they regenerate. This was my father's, 
William Rushton, research field. All those light rays bouncing off things and into the 



eye, to tell you what colour, shape, and distance they are. I'm always surprised there's 
room for them all. It is difficult to find out what other animals can see. Nocturnal 
animals have more rods in their eyes so they are specially adapted to blue light. People 
with one pigment missing sometimes do not realise that they are "colour-blind"; it feels 
normal to them. Bees can see into the ultra-violet and flowers often have special bee- 
guide patterns which we can't see. The rattlesnake has a sensor for infra-red radiation 
and can find a rat in the dark by the heat it emits. Infra-red radiation has enough 
energy to vibrate molecules, i.e. to heat them up. On a clear day about half the 
ground-level energy we are receiving is in the infra-red, but water absorbs it quite 
well, and not much gets through the myriad droplets of a cloud. Chilly, isn't it, on a 
sunless day? 

The Sun warming the air is a most potent factor in our lives, producing our day to 
day weather and overall climate. I spend a great deal of time looking at the sky and the 
clouds, admiring the rushing vertical currents and guessing at their vast size. My 
daughter Robin, who is a capable glider pilot, was circling high above the countryside 
50 miles from base and thinking ".. but I'm heavier than air." Once I was following 
George, my husband, when he flew into a thundercloud, a cumulo-nimbus. Down at 
ground level the largest hailstones I've ever seen were threatening to break the 
windscreen. Try throwing one of those into the air, and keeping it up by blowing, 
and you get some idea of the power that held those droplets in the air whilst ice built up 
around them. It tossed George up to 10,000 ft at 30 ft/sec, layers of ice forming on 
the glider, and he dived out of the cloud going up another 2,000 ft as he dived. The 
great masses of cold and warm air spin and thrust forming the global weather patterns 
so familiar from weather charts, sometimes developing into the stagnant areas of an 
anticyclone or conversely the violent vortex of a cyclone. The equatorial heat sends 
tropical storms bubbling up to enormous heights, the condensed water falls, and the 
dry warm air spreads to North and South before dropping, helping to create the world's 
desert zones. Greening the desert is an exciting concept, but it is really very difficult 
to do. I am waiting anxiously for some rich nation like the U.S.A., Saudi Arabia or 
Australia to make a success of it. 

The temperature and light levels at sub-tropical latitudes are excellent for growth, 
but photosynthesis can work well at quite low light levels and plants are well designed 
to catch sufficient for their needs. In this country light and heat are limiting factors to 
the growth of plants. The modern high-yielding wheat varieties have upright leaves 
that intercept possibly 8 times as much light as older varieties. In hot climates plants 
may need shade, and some, like maize and sugar cane, have special adaptations to their 
photosynthetic pathways, so that they can grow in high light and heat which would 
cause wilting in other plants. Chlorophyll collects light at visible wavelengths; it takes 
two photons to get enough energy to chop a water molecule, and surprisingly red and 
blue light are best value, 90% to 95% being absorbed, whereas only about 80% of the 
green is absorbed, leaving the other 20% to bounce back into our eyes; look, 
chlorophyll is green! If all the light were absorbed I suppose leaves would be black. 

Water absorbs red light so seaweeds have extra pigments that work in the blue, but 
they don't have much energy to work with as sunlight penetration through water is 
poor. In Windermere light levels are reduced to 1% at 7 metres depth, and even in 
very clear water, to 1 % at 20 metres. Also it can be very cold in deep water. 

Water is very strange stuff, and has two most unusual physical properties which 
have fundamental effects on the Earth and its climate. Firstly it is a liquid at average 
world temperatures. How many other simple substances can you think of which are 
liquids at 20°C? (Organic compounds don't count as simple in this context). Mercury? 
Any more? Then of course we are familiar with it as a solid and as a vapour, and here 
is the second strange thing, very important too. Water contracts as it cools, like 



almost everything else, down to 4°C, but below that and as it sets solid it becomes 
larger again, less dense, and the ice floats. In winter, on radiation frost nights, the 
surface water of a lake will cool, and fall to the bottom, cool and fall until the whole 
lake is at 4°C before it has a chance to freeze over. Incidentally this mixes and 
oxygenates the whole body of water. If ice was denser than water and sank to the 
bottom of the lake, it would be really slow to thaw, like permafrost, and act as a huge 
refrigeration unit, instead of which the oceans act as storage heaters, and keep us from 
having a continental winter, or summer come to that, temperature stabilisers. Sunlight 
on water drives the whole hydrological cycle, from sea to cloud, to rain, to river and 
back to sea, ice splitting the rocks, and water grinding and eroding them, forming soil 
and spreading it, watering it, to make growth possible. 

I don't want to leave the subject without mentioning animals. Because they can 
only operate within a restricted temperature range, animals have evolved myriads of 
behaviour patterns which include basking, both warm and cold blooded animals - also 
keeping out of the midday sun. Elephants are so large that dissipating heat is a 
problem, they have a large volume to surface ratio. Conversely shrews are so small 
that in order to maintain their warm-blooded status they must eat very frequently, and 
will starve in 3 hours. (Take care if you are setting Longworth traps). Large or small, 
virtually all animals live off the products of photosynthesis, so just keep right on 
shining, Sun. 



BRAINS TRUST 
Michael V. Fletcher 



The first Brains Trust for many years, was held by the Society on November 26th 
1992. On the panel were: Hugh Carter, who in general took questions about 
invertebrates, Michael Keith-Lucas, botanist, and Martin Sell, who handled questions 
on birds. The range of questions matched their own wide interests. 



BEECH TREES 

Why do Beech leaves remain on lower branches (up to about 15 feet) during 
winter? Is the Beech the only tree to exhibit this phenomenon? Also, are Beech 
mast years constant throughout the British Isles, or do they vary with locations? 
What factors do they depend on? Meryl Beek 

Michael pointed out that young trees often behaved differently to older and wiser ones. 
Oak seedlings, for instance, are evergreen in mild winters, and young beeches often fail 
to shed their leaves. Pruned beeches also keep this juvenile habit. To set fruit, beech 
needs a warm summer followed by a warm frost-free spring. Temperatures of -1°C 
kill male flowers. Good crops of mast only develop in wet summers. Frequently these 
conditions are not satisfied in Britain, but further south, beeches produce fruit more 
reliably. Several members contributed to a discussion, pointing out that leaf-drop was 
an active process, prompted by frost or shorter days and leaves killed by salt spray do 
not fall, and those near street lights often persist longest. Several noted the fine autumn 
colours this year, and were puzzled by them. Conditions had been wet and cloudy, the 
opposite of those believed to give a good autumn display. 






MAGPIES 

The number of magpies seems to be increasing. Has any survey been carried out 
to ascertain whether this is a national trend? If it is confirmed can any reason be 
given for the increase? Ken Grinstead 

It was thought that they are increasing. Possible reasons included: fewer gamekeepers 
to kill them; their craftiness on motorway verges, where they scavenge dead animals 
without being hit by traffic themselves; the way they prey on eggs and young of garden 
birds, whose numbers grow as more people fed them in winter (few small birds nest 
successfully near magpies) and cats catch a lot of garden birds, but not magpies. It was 
also thought magpies are becoming less timid. A member added that there have been 
more jays in recent years, often among oak trees, where they fed on acorns. 

MIST-NETTING 

Why is so little action taking place to stop mist-netting migrating wild birds, now 
that EEC rules forbid trapping? Frank Butler 

Up to 10 million migratory birds are still being killed in Europe each year. The 
position remains especially bad in Italy. There is still a disagreeable trade in small wild 
birds which are served as expensive delicacies in restaurants. This would be best 
stopped by prosecuting offending restaurants. In parts of Italy there are few wild birds, 
and the killing of birds is considered something to brag about. Birds know where 
people can not be trusted, and their behaviour in such places is very different to that 
seen at places like Pagham Harbour. However the position seems hopeful. The Italian 
bird protection society is going from strength to strength. The British RSPB is helping, 
but needs funds for binoculars, education, and so on. 



EARWIGS 

During the summer I have experienced what I can only describe as a 'plague' of 
earwigs. They have been appearing nightly in the kitchen, generally on the 
worktop behind the window. Exceptionally, I found 17 in a cookie jar which must 
have acted like a pitfall trap. Most recently there has been one wrapped in the 
dishcloth, and one on the gas stove. Do they wait until it is dark and fly in the 
window? Otherwise where are they likely to be breeding and hiding all day? They 
all appear to be adult. Shirley Townend 

Shirley strongly denied the suggestion that her kitchen was full of decaying vegetable 
matter, so it was suggested that they came in to shelter from rain. They like hiding in 
cracks, and they forage at night. They are, for instance, fond of hiding in caravans. 
Earwigs rarely fly. Only one member had ever seen it. To see them flying, a special 
look out near manure heaps in summer was recommended. 



PLANT DISTRIBUTIONS 

Some species of fern are found in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere. 
Apart from human introductions in recent times, do any species of flowering plant 
show a similar distribution? If not, why not? Ken Grinstead. 

It was pointed out that there are groups of such plants. Firstly, seaside and water 
plants, which are easily spread on the feet of migrating birds. Experiments where the 
muddy feet of Greylag geese had been washed, had shown that seeds from the mud are 
carried by them. Secondly were alpines, some of which, like birds-eye primrose, 
extended along the Andean mountain chain. Some mosses show similar distributions, 
though with these the position regarding human introduction is often more confused. 
Spores can be carried great distances more easily, and spore-bearing plants are often 
more ancient. Some of the most ancient, such as Osmunda and Borotrichum, and some 
mosses, have a world-wide distribution. Additionally, some striking North-South 
disjunct distributions exist, and even if they are the result of human introductions, they 
do reflect climatic similarities, such as those between New Zealand and Britain. The 
presence of Senecio greyii in the Shetlands, which resembles its homeland in the 
Falklands, was also remarked upon. 



INSECT HUNTING BEHAVIOUR 

Two odd bits of insect behaviour I have seen. Firstly, a stubble Field was burning 
in Kent several years ago, and a dozen or more swallows, sparrows, and perhaps 
other small birds were hawking up and down in the thick smoke, catching 
confused insects. Among them was a dragonfly, doing exactly the same thing. 
Secondly, an ants' nest swarming on a pile of rubble in my garden two years ago. 
To keep cats and birds off, I had covered the ground with fine plastic netting. The 
flying ants, if they were lucky, could fly through the holes. Three wasps could not 
get though the netting, being larger, so they hovered above it, waiting to catch the 
winged ants. One managed to grab a (small) male ant as it flew up. In both cases 
the predatory insects had probably never seen a similar situation before. Was it 
perhaps chance, or imitation? Has anyone other similar puzzling anecdotes about 
insects? Michael Fletcher 

The behaviour and tactics of parasitic wasps were mentioned. Shrikes and cuckoos are 
said to bash furry caterpillars, to get rid of the poisonous parts, before eating them. In 
Gambia where grass fires occur, birds have learnt that they give an opportunity to catch 
insects. 



SET-ASIDE 

What effect is farming set-aside having on wildlife? Alan Brickstock 

The team agreed that it is too early to say what effect set-aside might have on wildlife. 
It seems to encourage birds, eg. stubble fields, when left, encourage finches. There 
have been records of interesting plants, but some set-aside fields are merely overrun 
with common weeds like ragwort. Many agricultural weeds, like poppies and rarities 
like corn cockles, need regularly disturbed ground anyway. Substantial wildlife 
benefits only seem likely if set-aside is planned on a long-term basis. 



FINALLY 

If you had a choice of living anywhere in the country, which part would you 
choose for its natural history interest, or would you stay in Reading? 

Hugh Carter opted for the South East of the country, which has so many insect species 
(or possibly the South West). Martin Sell considered several options: East Anglia is 
good for birds; the Welsh borders are more scenic, but lack sea birds; East Scotland is 
bracing, but too remote; Shetland, despite its ornithological attractions, is treeless, with 
dismal grey houses; South Devon has a better climate; Reading has good 
communications, but is too large, too noisy, and a dormitory town. Michael Keith- 
Lucas is fond of Southern England, again because it has so many species (of plants), 
but he didn't mind where, so long as it was easy to get to other places. Somewhere not 
to far from the Channel ports, perhaps. He might even choose to stay in Reading! 



STAND UP AND BE COUNTED! 

or 

Outings, talks and membership 

Alan Brickstock 



Many of our outdoor meetings over the last few years have been very poorly 
attended, and this persuaded me to survey the numbers on our outings over the last 20 
years. Obviously many factors such as weather, day of week, holidays etc, affect the 
numbers, so I averaged these over each year. Even these averages fluctuate 
considerably, so I further averaged over two year periods. This gives a much smoother 
picture (Figure 1). Coach outings and the recent Wednesday afternoon walks have 
been excluded from the averages. 

One message is clear: over the last ten years attendances have fallen by a third. 
Over the last five years, there have been on average, five walks with less than ten 
people. Such low attendances were rare before 1987. How far can numbers decline 
before the effort expended is deemed not worth while? Much effort goes into 
organising a programme of walks and walk leaders often spend a lot of time in 
preparation including going over the route. 

Having done outings, I thought that I had better look at the figures for indoor 
meetings. These show a different pattern. Average numbers present were around 40 in 
the early 1970's, and rose to around 50 in the early 1980's. Since then they have 
steadily declined to around 40 once more (Figure 2). The only strikingly anomalous 
average was for the 1978/9 season. This was obviously due to severe weather. 
According to Mr Parry's weather notes, January 1979 was the coldest since 1963 and 
the third coldest since 1921, when University records began. February also was the 
coldest since 1963. On January 4th only 22 members were present, the lowest total in 
my 20 year survey. January 18th was rather better, with a total of 34. On February 
15th, Miss C. Olver deputised for a snow-bound speaker, with an audience of 25 
intrepid souls, the second lowest in the 20 year period. I caught a bus to Reading 
because the road conditions were so bad but had to walk home, as all the buses had 
stopped by then. 



Only having got this far in my investigations did I look at membership figures, 
which is where I should have started! These have been counted from membership lists 
which, until 1985, were published biennially in the Naturalist. Subsequent to that, I 
have only the latest loose list. Families have, rather arbitrarily, been counted as two 
for this purpose. Membership was low, at about 170, in the early 1970's, reached a 
peak of 275 in 1978, stayed at about 250 until 1985 and has now declined to 190. 

Looked at in terms of membership, attendance at indoor meetings has stayed around 
20%, with a high of 24% in 1971/2 and a very anomalous high of 28% in 1975/6. 
That for outings, averaged nearly 12% over the early 1970' s, but since then has 
averaged only 8%, falling as low as 6.5% in 1980. In 1991 it was 7.5%. One odd fact 
is that, when membership was highest, the percentages on both indoor and outdoor 
meetings was lowest. This would seem to imply that a lot of the extra members took 
no part in the Society! Why the rapid rise in members after 1975, and the decline since 
1985? Comments or suggestions would be welcome. 



so - 



(0 



30 



20 



10 



Fig. 1. Attendance on Natural 
History Society Outings 
(biennial averages) 



Fig. 2. Attendance at Indoor 
Meetings (biennial averages) 



50 - 



40 - 



30- 



70 



10 



71 73 75 77 79 01 93 85 87 89 91 93 
Year 



71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 
Year 



10 



NEWS! NEWS! NEWS! 

Reading Urban Wildlife Group - Survey of Foxes 

Members who attended Paula Cox's colourful and informative lecture on Foxes on 
December 10th will already know that during the whole of 1993 RUWG would like to 
receive records of any sightings of Foxes in Reading. The group needs as many 
detailed observations as possible. These should include the date, time, location and 
details of what the fox was doing (crossing a road, sleeping, eating, etc). This survey 
is particularly valuable as it compliments one carried out 8 years ago and may help 
identify any changes in Reading's Fox population during this time. Observations 
should be sent to RUWG, PO Box 267, Reading, RG4 7QZ from whom survey forms 
may also be obtained. 



Calling all Fungus Addicts 

A number of R&DNHS members are thinking of forming a Reading Mycological 
Society. The idea is still in its infancy and suggestions regarding activities of the group 
are very welcome. Anyone interested please contact Alan Brickstock on Reading 
425073. This suggestion comes at a timely moment, since the British Mycological 
Society has also recently proposed the setting up of local groups to promote the study of 
fungi. 



Spider Recording Scheme 

If you are considering getting involved in another 'group', have you considered 
Spiders? The time is right for such an activity as a Spider Recording Scheme, 
organised by the British Arachnological Society and the Biological Records Centre, was 
launched in 1987. It aims to publish a provisional atlas, in 1997, showing the 
distribution of spiders in the British Isles. Involvement in such a scheme can provide 
the necessary stimulus for discovering this interesting group. Quite a lot of help is 
obtainable, via the organisation, in the serious study of spiders. Much can be achieved 
with the aid of a stereo-microscope, and several excellent identification manuals are 
available. For more details write to The Spider Recording Scheme, The Institute of 
Terrestial Ecology, Monks Wood Experimental Station, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, 
PE17 2LS. Membership enquiries to the British Arachnological Society should be 
addressed to S.H. Hexter, BAS Membership Treasurer, 71 Havant Road, 
Walthamstow, London, E17 3JE. 



11 



Plants to Spare? 

Good quality, labelled plants (or cuttings, seeds, plant pots etc.) for sale in aid of 
BBONT are welcome at any time of year. (Plant pots can be provided if required). 
Please contact Ivy Brickstock on Reading 425073. 



Plants & Books Sale 



BBONT are holding two Plant & Book Sales at the Woodley Pagoda on Fridays May 
7th and 21st. A few volunteer helpers would be welcome, but please contact Ivy 
Brickstock on Reading 425073, before the beginning of May. Shop in Woodley 
Precinct and look over our wares. 



Reading Naturalist - Can yon help! 

Can you help with any of the following tasks for next year's production of the Reading 
Naturalist? If you can, please contact Frances Cook on Reading 476619. 

Records and articles. Short articles on species to look out for, or sites of particular 
local interest would be very useful, as would items for this 'News!' section, which may 
become a regular feature. For instance, many members belong to other organisations 
orientated to natural history. This News Section could help publicise activities within 
these groups that may be of interest to R&DNHS members. The editorial 
subcommittee also thinks that this section could be used to draw attention to new books 
on natural history, and even reviews of the most useful books for a particular 
taxonomic group. Contributions on all these aspects are very welcome. 

Word Processing. I would be very grateful if members with access to computers 
would volunteer to type up one (or more) of the articles (the more volunteers, the 
fewer articles each!). Many word processing documents can be converted to the 
package that this text is printed from and, to get help with the first draft, before editing 
and formatting, would be very useful. 

Artwork. Names of willing members who could help with illustrations and graphs etc, 
when and if needed, would be valuable. 

Collation. This year, as for many years previously Hugh Carter has kindly 
photocopied the text. We hope our good fortune in this continues, but it would be nice 
if a few members could volunterr to be responsible for the collation (this takes just a 
few hours a year). 

Distribution. All help to cut down postage costs are useful! 

Ideas. Of course any ideas regarding the improvement of the Reading Naturalist are 
most welcome. After all it is our journal representing our Society! 



12 



THE RECORDERS REPORT FOR BOTANY 1992 

Betty M. Newman 

This Society has published records from members for many years and the favourite 
localities around Reading have been well covered. Many records received now confirm 
that plants recorded years ago are still occurring in the same places. One example is 
Astragalus glycyphyllos first recorded in Sulham by the Society in 1953 on the site 
mentioned by Druce (1897). Most of our records are from areas to the west of 
Reading. This year, for the first time Alan Brickstock has sent in some interesting 
records from the Society's walk at Runnymede Meadows just within our twenty mile 
radius to the east of Reading. In contrast, Michael Fletcher has made some 
observations practically on his own doorstep. 

A selection from member's records is printed below. The nomenclature and order 
for the flowering plants and ferns follow those of Clapham, Tutin & Moore (1987) 
whilst that for the mosses follows Smith (1980). The English names are mainly from 
Dony, Jury & Perring (1986). An alien taxon is denoted by an asterisk (*). 

HEPATICAE : LIVERWORTS 

Conocephalum conicum (L.)Lindb. 

Fruiting by water level, Holy Brook, March 1992 (MVF). 

MUSCI : MOSSES 

Tortula latifolia Bruch ex Hartm. 

On a sunny, asbestos, vertical shed roof at Reading School, June 1989; on dead 
Buddleja stick in thicket at the Oracle site, September 1992; on a walltop, Western 
Avenue, December 1992 (MVF). This species is rare but probably widespread away 
from water. 

Tortula muralis Hedw. var. aestiva Hedw. 

Recently confirmed plants with a distinctly shorter yellowish hairpoint, growing 
alongside the typical form at Sutton Junior School, and in South Street. Probably 
frequent on damp, deeply shaded brickwork (MVF). 

Tortula ruralis (Hedw.)Gaertn., Meyer & Scherb. 

One small tuft (possibly of ssp. ruraliformis (Besch.)Dix.) on sunny tarmac, Church 
Close, St Giles. First record in Reading. Distinct from Tortula intermedia (Brid.)De 
Not., which is now very common, in its more tapering and recurved leaves (MVF). 

Barbula nicholsonii Culm. 

One small tuft confirmed on muddy tarmac, Kennetside. Described as frequent in the 
Thames Valley, and calcareous parts of Berkshire and neighbouring counties, but very 
rare elsewhere in the world (MVF). 

Barbula trifaria (Hedw.)Mitt. 

Scarce on limestone debris, Reading Abbey; large amounts on wet brickwork by Holy 

Brook (MVF). 



13 



Orthostrichum anomalum Hedw. 

Now frequent and often fertile on undisturbed tarmac in central Reading; occasional 

and rarely fertile on walls here (MVF). 

Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw.)Spruce 

Occasional on tarmac in central Reading, eg. in the Technical College Car Park, Orts 

Road (MVF). 

Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Adder' s-tongue 

Warburg Reserve, Bix 3.5.92 (AB). 

Athyrium felix-femina (L.)Roth Lady-fern 
The Holies 29.4.92 (AB). 



SPERMATOPHYTA : FLOWERING PLANTS & CONIFERS 

RANUNCULACEAE 

Ranunculus sceleratus L. Celery-leaved Buttercup 

By the Kennet & Avon Canal near Thatcham 2.5.92 (J&SW); Runnymede Meadows 
5.7.92 (AB). 

NYMPHAEACEAE 

Nymphaea alba L. White Water-lily 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

PAPAVERACEAE 

Chelidonium majus L. Greater Celandine 

One plant was seen in a neglected garden in South Street in 1990 and it is now abundant 
in a small area (MVF); by the inner distribution road near Coley (MVF); Cane End 
16.5.92 (AB). 

CRUCIFERAE 

*Diplotaxis muralis (L.)DC. Annual Wall-rocket 
Arborfield Cross 19.8.92 (AB). 

Cardamine amara L. Large Bitter-cress 

Sulham 10.5.92 (AB). 

VIOLACEAE 

Viola hirta L. Hairy Violet 

Hartslock 12.6.92 (AB). 

HYPERICACEAE 

Hypericum androsaemum L. Tutsan 
Heron Island 9.5.92 (AB). 



14 



CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

* Lychnis corona ria (L.)Desr. 
Swyncombe Downs 9.7.92 (C&RG). 

Myosoron aquaticwn (L.)Moench Water Chickweed 

Arborfield Cross 19.8.92, between Sulhamstead Lock and Ufton Bridge 26.9.92 (AB). 

StelJaria palustris Retz. Marsh St itch wort 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

GERANIACEAE 

Geranium pratense L. Meadow Crane's-bill 

Playhatch 8.6.92 (C&RG); Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB); roadside near 
Swyncombe church 9.7.92 (C&RG). 

Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. fil. Hedgerow Crane's-bill 
Hurley 23.6.92 (C&RG). 

Geranium columhinum L. Long-stalked Crane's-bill 
Swyncombe Downs 9.7.92 (C&RG). 

Geranium rohertianum L. Herb-Robert 

A white-flowered variety, St Andrews Road, Henley 2.10.92 (KMH). 

BALSAMINACEAE 

*Impatiens parviflora DC. Small Balsam 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

ACERACEAE 

^ Acer plat anoides L. Norway Maple 
Wargrave 20.5.92 (AB). 

LEGUM1NOSAE 

Astragalus glycyphyllos L. Wild Liquorice 

Sulham - a single large plant (AB). 

Vicia tenuissima (Bieb.)Schinz & Thell. Slender Tare 
Woolhampton Quarry 28.6.92 (AB). 

*Melilotus officinalis (L.)Pallas Ribbed Melilot 

Holy Brook and dismantled railway line, Reading 9.7.92 (AB). 

ROSACEAE 

Filipendula vulgaris Moench Dropwort 
Swyncombe Downs 19.7.92 (C&RG). 

Rosa rubiginosa L. Sweet-briar 
The Holies 24.5.92 (AB). 



15 



CALLITRICHACEAE 

Callitriche hamulata Katz. ex Koch Intermediate Water-starwort 

Cane End 16.5.92 (AB). 

UMBELLIFERAE 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. Marsh Pennywort 

Chobham Common 23.8.92 (C&RG). 

*Smyrnium olusatrum L . Alexanders 

By the Kennet & Avon Canal near Thatcham 2.5.92 (J&SW); abundant around 

miniature railway line in Prospect Park (AB). 

Sium latifolium L. Greater Water-parsnip 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

Berula erecta (Hudson)Coville Lesser Water-parsnip 

Heron Island, Reading 9.5.92, between Sulhampstead Lock and Ufton Bridge 26.9.92 

(AB). 

Oenanthe fistulosa L. Tubular Water-dropwort 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

Oenanthe aquatica (L.)Poiret Fine-leaved Water-dropwort 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Euphorbia lathyrus L. Caper Spurge 
Hambleden 16.9.92 (AB). 

FAGACEAE 

*Quercus cerris L. Turkey Oak 
Arborfield Cross 19.8.92 (AB). 

SAL1CACEAE 

*Populus deltoides Marshall American Poplar, Eastern Cottonwood 
By the Kennet & Avon Canal near Thatcham 2.5.92 (J&SW). 

PRIMULACEAE 

Primula veris L. x vulgaris Hudson False Oxlip 
Warburg Reserve, Bix 3.5.92 (AB). 

Anagallis tenella (L.)L. Bog Pimpernel 

Wellington College 20.6.92 (John Robbins,BRB) 

APOCYNACEAE 

Vinca minor L. Lesser Periwinkle 

In flower near the Kennet & Avon Canal, Aldermaston 21.3.92 (J&SW) 



16 



*Vinca major L. Greater Periwinkle 

Wargrave 20.5.92 (AB). 

GENTIANACEAE 

Gentianella amarella (L.)Borner Autumn Gentian 

The Holies 24.5.92 (AB). 

BORAGINAGEAE 

Anchusa arvensis (L.)Bieb. Bugloss 
Swyncombe Downs 9.7.92 (C&RG). 

*Pentaglottis sempervirens (L.)Tausch Green Alkanet 
Cane End 16.5.92 (AB). 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

Verbascum thapsus L. Great Mullein 

Harpsden Wood, Oxon 14.6.92 (KMH); Holy Brook and dismantled railway line, 
Reading 16.8.92 (AB). 

Misopates orontium (L.)Rafin. Lesser Snapdragon 
Arborfield Cross 19.8.92(AB). 

OROBANCHACEAE 

Orobanche minor Sm. Common Broomrape 

Hartslock 12.6.92, Woolhampton Quarry 22.6.92, BBONT allotment, Woodley 
24.6.92 (AB); Whiteknights 15.6.92 (C&RG). 

VERBENACEAE 

Verbena officinalis L. Vervain 
Hambleden 16.9.92 (AB). 

LABIATAE 

Acinos arvensis (Lam.)Dandy Basil Thyme 
Swyncombe Downs 9.7.92 (C&RG). 

CAMPANULACEAE 

Capanula trachelium L. Nettle-leaved Bellflower 

Heron Island, Reading 9.5.92, Hambleden 16.9.92 (AB). 

Legousia hybrida (L.)Delarbre Venus's-looking-glass 
Swyncombe Downs 2.6.92 (C&RG). 

DIPSACACEAE 

Dipsacus pilosus L. Small Teasel 

Cliveden 19.9.92 (C&RG). 



17 



COMPOSITAE 

Bidens cernua L. Nodding Bur-marigold 
Arborfield Cross 19.8.92 (AB). 

Bidens tripartita L. Trifid Bur-marigold 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

*Galinsoga ciliata (Rafin.)S.F. Blake Shaggy Soldier 

Abundant in allotments, Shepherds Hill, Reading, and very scarce in Queens Road, 

Reading (MVF). 

Senecio jacobaea L. Common Ragwort 

Increasing in central Reading. First town centre plant seen in 1989 in a cement crack 
by the Kennet and several by the Queen's Road multistorey car park in 1991. Since 
seen in pavement cracks in South Street and Orts Road. Abundant in a lawn in Erleigh 
Road in 1992 and occasional in rough grass and public garden beds (MVF). 

Senecio jacobaea L. x cineraria DC. 

One seedling in front garden, the Grove, Reading, 1990 was moved to garden in South 
Street for investigation. The leaves had dense grey felt on both sides and deeply 
bipinnate lobes like those of some forms of both presumed parents. It produced sterile 
flowering stems of up to one metre, and is now dead. A small herbarium specimen 
was retained (MVF). 

Senecio viscosus L. Sticky Groundsel 

Abundant in garden in South Street 1990. Seed was probably brought in when another 
plant was introduced from a shingle beach in Deal, Kent. In 1991 seen along many 
pavements nearby, and as far away as Wokingham Road. Still growing by the railway 
just E. of Reading station where it was recorded before 1980 (MVF); Woolhampton 
Quarry 28.6.92, Arborfield Cross 19.8.92 (AB). 

Senecio viscosus L. x squalidus L. 

One sterile plant in garden in South Street 1991-2, det. H.Bowen (MVF). This hybrid 

was recorded near Reading station by H.Bowen in 1969. 

Senecio vulgaris L. var. radiatus Koch. 

Long grown in my garden in South Street from a plant found at Burford in 1963. Since 

1990 occasional by pavements in South Street and other streets nearby (MVF). 

Inula conyza DC. Ploughman's-spikenard 

Hambleden 16.9.92 (AB); Cliveden 19.9.92 (C&RG). 

Filago vulgaris Lam. Common Cudweed 

Holy Brook and dismantled railway line, Reading 9.7.92 (AB). 

Erigeron acer L. Blue Fleabane 

Watlington Hill 16.8.92 (C&RG). 

Anthemis cotula L. Stinking Chamomile 

Burghfield area 15.4.92 (AB). 

Cirsium dissection (L.)Hill Meadow Thistle 

Chobham Common 23.8.92 (C&RG). 



18 



Lactuca serriola L. Prickly Lettuce 

Gardens, Reading Road, Henley, spreading widely (KMH) 

*Hieracium aurantiacum L. Fox-and-cubs 

Harpsden Road, Henley 16.8.92. The single plant seen in 1991 has increased to more 

than a dozen (KMH). 

ALISMATACEAE 

Alisnia lanceolatum With. Narrow-leaved Water-plantain 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

Sagittavia sagittifolia L. Arrowhead 

Canal between Aldermaston Lock and Frond's Bridge 21.3.92, near Thatcham 2.5.92 

(J&SW). 

HYDROCHARITACEAE 

Hydrochahs morsus-ranae L. Frogbit 
Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

Stratiotes aloides L. Water-soldier 
Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

LILIACEAE 

Polygonatum multiflorum (L.)All. Solomon's-seal 
Padworth 11.4.92 (AB). 

Fritillaria meleagris L. Fritillary 

Stratfield Saye 22.4.92. Many plants very deformed as if a weed-killer of some sort 
had drifted near (KMH). 

Omitliogalum umbeUatum L. Star-of-Bethlehem 

Wargrave 20.5.92 (AB). 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 

Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Wild Daffodil 

Satwell, Rotherfield Greys, Oxon 18.4.92 (KMH). 

ORCHIDACEAE 

Cephalanthera datnasonium (Miller)Druce White Helleborine 

Swyncombe Downs 2.6.92 (C&RG). 

Coeloglossom viride (L.)Hartman Frog Orchid 
Watlington Hill 16.8.92 (C&RG). 

Ophrys apifera Hudson Bee Orchid 
Hartslock 12.6.92 (AB); Lower Earley (RHD). 

Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce)Soo Common Spotted-orchid 

One plant among Saxifraga umbrosa, Antirrhinums and small garden weeds in shady 

neglected garden near Reading West station, Det. H.Bowen (MVF). 



19 



Dactylorhiza fitchsii (Druce)Soo x praetermissa (Druce)Soo 
Woolhampton Quarry 28.6.92 (AB). 

LEMNACEAE 

Lemna trisulca L. Ivy-leaved Duckweed 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

CYPERACEAE 

Rhyncospora alba (L.)Vahl White Beak-sedge 
Wellington College bog 20.6.92 (John Robbins, BRB). 

Carex paniculata L. Greater Tussock-sedge 

By the Kennet & Avon Canal, near Thatcham 2.5.92 (J&SW). 

Carex otrubae Podp. False Fox-sedge 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

Carex pendula Hudson Pendulous Sedge 

Wargrave 20.5.92 (AB). 

GRAMINEAE 

Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. Orange Foxtail 

Runnymede Meadows 5.7.92 (AB). 

CONTRIBUTORS 

Thanks are due to the following contributors: 

Brian Baker (BRB), Alan Brickstock (AB), Bob Davies (RHD), Michael Fletcher 
(MVF), Colin & Renee Grayer (C&RG), Ken Horswell (KMH), John & Sheila Ward 
(J&SW). 

REFERENCES 

Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore D.M. (1987). Flora of the British Isles. 3rd 

Edition. Cambridge, CUP. 688pp. 

Dony, J.G., Jury, S.L. & Perring, F.H. (1986). English Names of Wild Flowers: a 
list recommended by the B. S.B.I. 2nd Edition. London, B. S.B.I. 117pp. 

Druce, G.C. (1897). The Flora of Berkshire. 

Smith, A.J.E. (1980). The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge, CUP. 
706pp. 



20 



THE RECORDERS REPORT FOR FUNGI 1992 

Alan Brickstock 



This was the sort of fungus season we remembered having in the past, but memory 
may have played us false. It was a very early season, starting four or even five weeks 
earlier than usual. As a result of cool, wet August weather the woods throughout 
September were carpeted with fungi, some species appearing in great numbers. 
Clitocybe nebularis and C. flaccida were both present in the form of many large rings 
at Sul ham. 

By early October, usually prime foraying time, the early flush was rapidly 
declining. The number of species continued to be high, but on many October forays, 
diligent searching was needed to find them. The overall total of species for the Reading 
area, at 453, was easily a record - previous best was 380 in 1982 - as was the total of 
154 species on the society foray at Sulham on October 4th. The Earth Stars, Geastrum 
triplex and G. sessile, were both found in several additional locations in the woods 
there, for the second year running. A notable find there was Rhodotus palmatus 
growing on Beech. This is a species found almost exclusively on old Elm logs. 
Another nice find was Pulcherricium caendeum, a brilliant blue corticioid which grows 
on the underside of fallen Ash twigs. Very unusually, one patch was found growing on 
a dead Honeysuckle stem. The second society foray, at Fence Wood on October 18th, 
produced a comparatively modest 99 species - but this would be considered a 
marvellous count in most years. 

An interesting sideline, following the establishment of a wildflower area on the 
slope below the Mansion House in Prospect Park was the reappearance of two 
Hygrocybe species. At one time these were regularly recorded here, but have been 
absent for some years. 

Two interesting Boletales were Boletus satanoides, several specimens of which were 
found by Paula Millard at Binfield, and Phylloporus rhodoxanthus , found at the 
Warburg reserve. Gordon Crutchfield recorded many species from Reading Golf 
Course, including the uncommon Leptonia incana. Unusual numbers of the Old Man 
of the Woods, Strobilomyces floccopus , were found at both Lambridge and Satwell. 
Amanita phalloides appeared in considerable numbers, notably over 100 specimens, 
reported by Neville and Mary Diserens, from Harpsden. Jew's Ear was particularly 
abundant towards the end of the year, with large colonies growing on Beech and a few 
on Cherry as well as on the more usual host, Elder. 

A selection of the more interesting records is given below. 



AGARICALES 

Agaricus augustus Fr. 

Reading Golf Course 2.8.92 (GC). 

Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.)Sacc. 
Reading Golf Course 21.8.92 (GC). 

Agaricus bresadolianus Bohus 

Sulham 4. 10.92 (NH), has a whitish root-like mycelial strand at the base of the stipe. 



21 



Agaricus comtulus Fr. 
Highdown School 26.8.92 (GC). 

Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Schulzer apud Kalchbr. 
Reading Golf Course 14.5.92 (GC). 

Asterophora lycoperdoides (Bull, ex Merat)S.F. Gray 
Virginia Water 17.10.92 (BMS). 

Cantherellus cibarius Fr. 

Ufton Nervet 5.9.92 (AB). 

Cortinarius bolaris (Pers. ex Fr.)Fr. 
Pamber Forest 21.9.92 (PEC) 

Cortinarius calochrus (Pers.)Fr. 
Sulham 4.9.92 (AB). 

Cortinarius duracinus Fr. 

Wellington Country Park 31.10.92 (GC); Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Cortinarius paleaceus (Weinm.)Fr. 
Newtown Common 10.10.92 (AB). 

Cortinarius sertipes Kuehn 

Warburg Reserve 1.11.92, with Birch and Beech, gills initially brown (BMS). 

Crate rellus cornucopioides (L.)Pers. 

Sulham 4.10.92 (NH); Lambridge 11.10.92 (AB). 

Entoloma sinuatum (Bull, ex Fr.)Kummer 
Sulham 5.9.92 (AB). 

Flammulaster subincamata (Juss. & Kiihn.)Watl. 
Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Hygrocybe coccinea (Sch.)Kumm. 

Prospect Park 3.10.92, in newly created flower meadow, after being absent for many 

years (AB). 

Hygrocybe foetens (Phill.)Arnolds 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Hygrocybe streptopus (Fr.)Bon. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Hygrocybe nivea (Scop.)Fr. 

Prospect Park 29.9.92, in newly created flower meadow, after being absent for many 

years (AB). 

Hygrocybe psittacina (Schaeff. ex Fr.)Wiinsche 
Wilderness, Whiteknights, under holly 12.10.92 (PEC). 

Inocybe griseolilacina Lange 

Heath End, Checkenden 31.8.92 (PEC); Sulham 4.10.92 (NH). 



22 



lnocybe godeyi Gillet 
Cucumber Wood 28.9.92 (GC) 

lnocybe jurana Pat. 

Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

lnocybe pyriodora (Pers. ex Fr.)Kummer 
Sulham 4.10.92 (NH). 

Lactarius acris (Bolton)S. F.Gray 
Davenport Wood 19.9.92 (N&MD). 

Lactarius azonites (Bull, ex St Amans)Fr. 
Snelsmore Common 10.10.92 (AB). 

Lactarius brittanicus Reid 

Whiteknights Park, under Populus 30.10.92 (PEC). 

Lactarius obscuratus (Lasch)Fr. 

Pamber Forest 21.9.92 (PEC); Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Lentinus tigrinus (Bull, ex Fr.)Fr. 
Runnymede, on willow 20.7.91 (PEC). 

Lepiota clypeolaria (Bull.)Kummer 
Sulham 28.10.92 (AB). 

Lepiota ignivolvata Bousset-Joss 
Heath End, Checkendon 31.8.92 (PEC) 

Lepiota leucothites (Vitt.)Orton 
Emmer Green 19.7.92, 21.8.92 (GC). 

Lepiota oreadiformis Vel. 
Sulham 28.10.92 (AB). 

Lepiota petieri (Bond.)Sing. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Leptonia incana (Fr.)Gillet 

Reading Golf Course 27.8.92 (GC). A striking, bright green species. 

Lyophyllum fumatofoetens (Secr.)Schaeff. 
Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Macrolepiota rhacodes (Vitt.)Sing var. hortensis Pilat 
Emmer Green 26.8.92 (GC). 

Marasmius recubans Quel. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Marasmius wynnei Berk. & Br. 

Sulham 5.9.92 (AB), 4.10.92 (NH); Bottom Wood 4.10.92 (1MB). 



23 



Melanophyllum echinatwn (Roth ex Fr.)Sing. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS) 

Mycena pura (Pers. ex Fr.)Kummer var. rosea Schum. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS) 

Mycena rorida (Scop.)Quel. 
Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Mycena speirea (Fr.)Gill. 
Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Mycena tortuosa P.D. Orton 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS) 

Panus torulosus (Pers. ex Fr.)Fr. 
UftonNervet 3.10.92 (1MB). 

Psathyrella cotonea (Quel.)Konrad & Maubl. 
Lambridge 11.10.92 (NH). 

Rhodotus palmatus (Bull, ex Fr.)Maire 

Sulham, on Elm, its usual host, and also on Beech, a most unusual host 4.10.92 (NH); 

Arborfield Cross 8.10.92 (AB); Lousehill Copse 21.10.92 (AB). 

Russula aurea Pers. 

Davenport Wood 19.9.92 (MD det. Alan Rayner). 

Russula brunneoviolacea Crawsh. 

Reading Golf Course 24.7.92 (GC); Newtown Common 10.10.92 (AB). 

Russula caerulea (Pers.)Fr. 
UftonNervet 5.11.92 (AB). 

Russula foe tens Pers. 

Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Russula laurocerasi Melzer 
Davenport Wood 19.9.92 (N&MD). 

Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. 
Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Volvariella bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.)Sing. 
Shiplake College 13.9.92 (N&MD). 

Volvariella surrecta (Knapp.)Sing. 

Greenham Common Bomb Dump, growing on Clitocybe nebularis, 11.10.92 (N&MD). 



BOLETALES 

Boletus luridus Schaeff. ex Fr. 
Reading Golf Course 20.7.92 (GC). 



24 



Boletus satcmoides Smotlacha 

Binfield 30.7.92, a number of good specimens growing in grass or moss under Oaks 

(PM). 

Gyroporus castaneus (Bull, ex Fr.)Quel. 
Harpsden 19.9.92 (N&MD). 

Leccinwn duriusculum (Schulz.)Sing 

Whiteknights Park, under Populus September 1992 (PEC). 

Leccinwn ruseofractum Watling 
Snelsmore Common 10. 10.92 (AB). 

PhyUoporus rhodoxanthus (Schw.)Bres. 
Warburg Reserve 20.9.92 (N&MD). 

Strobilomyces floccopus (Vahl. ex Fr.)Karst. 

Lambridge 11.10.92, quite numerous (AB); Satwell 6.9.92, c.40 specimens (N&MD). 



APHYLLOPHORALES 

Bjerkandera fumosa (Fr.)Karst. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Clavariadelphus fistulosa (Fr.)Corner 
Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC). 

Clavariadelphus junceus Fr . 
Fence Wood 3. 10.92 (NFC). 

Ganodenna lucidum (Curt, ex Fr.)Karst. 

Windsor Great Park 22.8.92, growing on Red Oak (N&MD). 

Hymenochaete corrugata Fr. 

Warburg Reserve 1.11.92, growing on Hazel (BMS). 

lnonotus cuticularis (Bull, ex Fr.)P.Karst 
Lambridge Wood, on Beech 11.10.92 (PEC). 

Merulius tremellosus Fr. 

Ashampstead 1.10.92 (AB); Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC); Bottom Wood 4.10.92 (AB). 

Phanerochaete velutina (Fr.)Karst. 
Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 

j% e Ut'/**s igniarius (L. ex Fr.)Quel. 

Dinton Pastures, by Teal hide, on Salixfragilis 8.3.92 (PEC); Runnymede, on Salix 

20.7.92 (NH). 

Phellodon conjluens (Pers.)Pouz. 
Davenport Wood 19.9.92 (N&MD). 

Phellodon tomentosus (L. ex Fr.)Banker 
Newtown Common 10.10.92 (AB). 



25 



Physisporinus sanguinolentus (Alb. & Schw.)Pilat 
Lambridge 11.10.92 (AB). 

Pulcherricium caeruleum (Schrad. ex Fr.)Parm. 

Sulham 4.10.92, present on large number of fallen and standing ash twigs but also, 

very unusually, one specimen on honeysuckle (NH). 

Serpula himantioides (Fr. ex Fr.)Karst 
Wellington Country Park 31.10.92 (GC). 

Steccherinum fimbriatum (Pers. ex Fr.)Erikss. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Steccherinum ochraceum (Pers. in Gmel. ex Fr.)S.F. Gray 
Sulham, on Beech, 4.10.92 (NH). 

Sterewn subtomentosum Pouzar 

Sulham 4.10.92 (NH); Binfield Copse, on Ash 10.10.92; Lambridge 11.10.92 (AB). 

Trechispora farinacea (Pers. ex Fr.)Liberta 
Sulham 4.10.92 (NH); Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 

Typhula quisquiliaris (Fr.)Corner 

Pamber Forest 21.9.92 (PEC); Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 

Tyromyces wakefieldiae Kotlaba & Pouzar 

Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH); Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Vuilleminia comedans (Nees. ex Fr.)Maire 

Sulham 4.10.92 (NH); Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 



GASTEROMYCETES 

Geastrum sessile (Sow.)Pouz. 

Sulham 19.9.92 (see note under G. triplex) (AB); Davenport Wood 19.9.92 (N&MD). 

Geastrum triplex Jungh 

Sulham 19.9.92 (appears to be spreading at Sulham, found in fresh places last year and 

still further ones this year); Ipsden 27.9.92 (PEC). 

Langermannia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.)Rostk. 

Emmer Green 23.8.92 (GC); Sulham 27.8.92, numerous large specimens to 8" 

diameter and 1 lb 12 oz (AB); 



HETEROBASIDIOMYCETES 

Auricula ria auricula-judae St. A mans 

Sulham, on Holly 4.10.92 (NH); Whiteknights, on Elaeagnus pungens an unusual host, 

9.10.92 (PEC). 

Exidia thuretiana (Lev.)Fr. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 



26 



Myxarium nucleatum Wallr. 

Fence Wood 3.10.92 (NFC); Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Plileogena faginea (Fr. ex Fr.)Link 

Pamber Forest, on Alder 21.9.92, Shiplake Copse, on Ash 10.10.92 (PEC). 

Pseudohydmtm gelatinosum (Scop, ex Fr.)Karst 

Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH), a tongue-like jelly fungus with lower surface covered in 

whitish spines. 



ASCOMYCETES 

BisporeUa sulfurina (Quel.)Carpenter 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Ciboria borsch i ana (Zopf)Buch. 
Virginia Water 17.10.92 (BMS). 

Cordyceps oplrioglossoides (Ehr. ex Fr.)Link 
Newtown Common 10.10.92 (AB). 

Encoelia furfuracea (Roth ex Pers.)Karst. 

Warburg Reserve 1.11.92, a brown cap fungus growing on dead hazel (BMS). 

Eutypa flavovirens (Fr.)Tul. & C. Tul. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Geopora sumneriana (Cooke)de la Torre 

Whiteknights 5.3.92, Caversham Court 22.3.92, both under Cedar (PEC). 

Hypocrea rufa (Pers. ex Fr.)Fr. 
Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 

Hypomyces rosellus (Alb. & Schw.)Tul. 
Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 

Hypoxyllon rubiginosum (Pers. ex Fr.)Fr. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Lasiosphaeria ovina (Fr.)Ces. & de Not. 
Sulham 4.10.92 (NH). 

MorcheUa vulgaris (Pers.)Boud. 
Reading Golf Course 20.4.92 (GC). 

Nearia berkeleyana (Plowr. & Cooke)Dingley 

Pamber Forest 21.9.92, purple-coloured growing on Stereum (PEC). 

Nectria coccinea (Pers. ex Fr.)Fr. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Neobulgaria pura (Fr.)Petrak var.foliacea (Bres.)Dennis & Gamundi 
Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH); Sulham 16.11.92 (AB). 



27 



Otidia bufonia (Pers.)Bond. 

Greenham Common Bomb Dump 11.10.92 (N&MD). 

Otidia cochleata (L. ex St. Amans)Fuckel 
Bramshill 12.9.92 (N&MD). 

Usndina deusta (Fr.)Petrak 
Sulham 4.10.92 (NH). 

Xylaria carpophila (Pers.)Fr. 
Sulham 4.10.92 (NH). 



FUNGI IMPERFECTI 

Trichoderma viride Pers. 
Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 



MYXOMYCETES 

Arcyria denudata (L.)Wettstein 
Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 

Badhamia utricularis (Bull.)Berk. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (Mull.)Macbr. 

Lambridge Wood 11.10.92 (PEC); Fence Wood 18.10.92 (NH). 

Dictydiaethelium plumbewn (Schum.)Rost. 

Sulham 4.10.92 (NH); Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). Rose-coloured, eventually 

turning lead-grey. 

Leocarpus fragilis (Dicks. )Rost. 
Warburg Reserve 1.11.92 (BMS). 

CONTRIBUTORS 

Alan Brickstock (AB), Ivy Brickstock (1MB), Paul Cook (PEC), Gordon Crutchfield 
(GC), Neville & Mary Diserens (N&MD), Paula Millard (PM), British Mycological 
Society Foray (BMS), Newbury Field Club Foray (NFC), Reading & District Natural 
History Society Foray (NH). 

Special thanks to Paul Cook and Neville Diserens for leading forays and identifying 
species, to Gordon Crutchfield for his numerous tabulated records from Reading Golf 
Course, Cucumber Wood and other locations, and to Barrie Bristow for Newbury Field 
Club records. Thanks also to various people who have brought me specimens to 
examine or identify. This makes things worthwhile. 



28 



THE RECORDER'S REPORT FOR ENTOMOLOGY 1992 

Brian R. Baker 



The order and nomenclature used in this report are those given in Kloet and Hincks 
(1964-1978), supplemented by Bradley and Fletcher (1979, 1986). 



ODONATA : DRAGONFLIES 

Agrion virgo (L.) Demoiselle Agrion 

Pamber Forest 23.6.92, in abundance on the Silchester Brook (BRB). 

ORTHOPTERA : CRICKETS, BUSHCRICKETS, GRASSHOPPERS etc 

Acheta domestica (L.) House Cricket 

Hargrave Road, Maidenhead, heard stridulating on several warm nights 17.5.92 to 
25.5.92 (MVA). 



DICTYOPTERA : COCKROACHES 

Supella supellectiUum (Serville) Brown Cockroach 

1 female and several nymphs, Wokingham 13.1.92 (coll. J. Mahoney, det. HHC). 

HEMIPTERA : PLANT BUGS, LEAF HOPPERS, APHIDS etc 

Elasmostethus interstinctus (L.) 
Temple Golf Course 21.8.92 (MVA). 

Legnotus limbosus (Geoffroy) 

Hargrave Road, Maidenhead 16.5.92 (MVA). 

Eysarcoris fabricii (L.) 

A colony, on Stachys vulneraria at 10 Northbrook Road, Caversham Park, was 
watched from adults in cop. with ova and some 1st instar nymphs 10.6.92, to 2nd instar 
7.7.92, 3rd and 4th instars July-August, 5th instar 11th July onwards to adults in 
August (early and late cohorts coexisting) (HHC). 

NEUROPTERA : ALDERFLIES, SNAKEFLIES, LACEWINGS 

Ovysopa ciliata Wesmael 

Temple Golf Course 21.8.92 (MVA). 

LEP1DOPTERA : BUTTERFLIES & MOTHS 

Adscita statices (L.) The Forester 

Hazelwood Lane Meadow near Bracknell 13.6.92 (DS). 



29 



Ladoga Camilla (L. ) White Admiral 

Pamber Forest 19.6.92 and continuing in good numbers until early August. The black 
variety nigrina Weymer 23.6.92 and the partially black variety obliterae Robson & 
Gardner 22.7.92 (BRB). 

Apatura iris (L.) Purple Emperor 

Pamber Forest 15.7.92 (BRB). 

Cynthia cardui (L. ) Painted Lady 

Beech Lane, Earley, 3.7.92, 15.7.92, 23.7.92, 24.7.92, 5.9.92 (BMN); Crawshay 
Drive, Emmer Green 16.7.92 (JHFN); Aldermaston 24.7.92, Surley Row, Emmer Green 
25.7.92 (PS); Burghfield Common, a few during July and August (DAY). 

Aglais urticae (L.) Small Tortoiseshell 

Little Court, Cleeve 16.9.92, and many noted 28.9.92 (EVW). 

Polygonia c-album (L.) The Comma 

Matlock Road, Caversham. After hibernating in the garden shed all winter a specimen 
flew 28.2.92 (BRB); Burghfield Common from late March after hibernation and from 
July to September (DAY); Aldermaston 27.2.92 (PS); Crawshay Drive, Emmer Green 
15.7.92 (JHFN); Little Court, Cleeve one 16.9.92 and one 28.9.92 (EVW). 

Argynnis aglaja (L. ) Dark Green Fritillary 
Swyncombe Downs several 19.7.92 (N&MD). 

Tethea or (D. & S.) Poplar Lutestring 

Burghclere 20.5.92 (GGE-F). 

Rhodometra sacraria (L.) The Vestal 
Wash Common, Newbury 20.5.92 (NC). 

Orthonama obstipata (Fabr.) The Gem 
Burghclere 14.5.92, first site record (GGE-F). 

Chloroclysta siterata (Hufn.) Red Green Carpet 

Harcourt Drive, Earley 10.10.90 (NMH); Burghfield Common 11.4.92, first record 
from garden trap (DAY); Burghclere 22.5.92, very late after hibernation, 19.10.92, 
6.11.92, 21.11.92, 22.11.92 (GGE-F). 

Plemyria rubiginata (D. & S.) Blue-bordered Carpet 
Surley Row, Emmer Green 24.6.92 (PS). 

Rheumaptera cervinalis (Scop.) Scarce Tissue 
Crawshay Drive, Emmer Green 8.4.92 (JHFN). 

Perizoma bifaciata (Haw.) Barred Rivulet 

Temple Golf Course 21.8.92 (MVA). 

Eupithecia irriguata (Hiibn.) Marbled Pug 

Wash Common, Newbury 14.5.92, 20.5.92 (NC); normally found annually at Wash 

Common and Burghclere but not noted at the latter locality in 1992 (GGE-F). 

Chloroclystis chloerata (Mab.) Sloe Pug 
Burghclere 12.6.92 to 7.7.92 (GGE-F). 



30 



Semiothisa notata (L. ) Peacock Moth 

Harcourt Drive, Earley 20.7.92, Greenham Common 21.8.92 (NMH). 

Agriopis leucophaearia (D. & S.) Spring Usher 

Burghclere 5.2.92, in remarkable abundance with 189 specimens in the Robinson light- 
trap (GGE-F). 

Macroglosswn steiiatarum (L.) Humming-bird Hawk-moth 

Surley Row, Emmer Green 6.6.92 (PS); Matlock Road, Caversham 30.7.92 (BRB). 

Deilephila elpenor (L.) Large Elephant Hawk-Moth 

St. Andrew's Road, Henley-on-Thames 19.7.92, two larvae feeding on Menyanthes 
trifoliata L. growing in the middle of a small pond (KMH). An unusual foodplant not 
mentioned in recent works but given in Barrett (1895), Lepidoptera of the British 
Islands, vol. 2. 

Orgyia antiqua (L.) The Vapourer 

Crawshay Drive, Emmer Green 26.9.92 in the Robinson light-trap (JHFN). An unusual 
occurrence for this day-flying species. 

Arolmis rubricollis (L.) Red-necked Footman 

Wash Common, Newbury 13.6.92 (NC). 

Callimorpha dominula (L.) Scarlet Tiger 

Harcourt Drive, Earley 15.6.92 (NMH); Burghclere 29.6.92 (GGE-F); Moor Copse 
N.R. 3.7.92 (BRB). 

Mythimna vitelline! (Hiibn.) The Delicate 
Wash Common, Newbury 8.9.92 (NC). 

Lithophane hepatica (CI.) Pale Pinion 

Burghclere 17.3.92, 1.4.92, 8.4.92, 18.4.92, 28.4.92 (GGE-F); Burghfield Common 

18.3.92, first site record (DAY). 

Lithophane ornitopus (Hufn.) Grey Shoulder-knot 

Burghclere, three after hibernation between 29.3.92 and 26.4.92, thirteen autumnal 
records between 10.10.92 and 18.12.92 (GGE-F); Burghfield Common 20.3.92, 
1.10.92, 7.11.92, Wellington C.P. 20.3.92, 3.4.92 (DAY); Tanners Lane, Chalkhouse 
Green 7.10.92 (JHFN). 

Lithophane leautieri (Boisd.) Blair's Pinion 
Crawshay Drive, Emmer Green larva 16.6.92 (JHFN). 

Conistra rubiginea (D.& S.) Dotted Chestnut 

Edgecumbe Park Drive, Crowthorne 1.4.92 (DS). 

Xanthia citrago (L.) Orange Sallow 
Hargrave Road, Maidenhead 20.9.92 (MVA). 

Craniophora ligustri (D.& S.) The Coronet 

Burghclere 26.6.92 (GGE-F); Moor Copse N.R. 3.7.92, first reserve record (BRB). 

Dicycla oo (L.) The Heart Moth 

Burghfield Common 26.6.92, first site record (DAY). 



31 



Cosmia qffinis (L.) Lesser-spotted Pinion 

Harcourt Drive, Earley 20.7.92 (NMH). 

Apamea ophiogramma (Esp.) Double Lobed 
Moor Copse N.R. 3.7.92 (BRB). 

Elaphria venustula (Hiibn.) Rosy Marbled 

Burghclere 25.5.92, first site record (GGE-F). 

Panemeria tenebrata (Scop.) Small Yellow Underwing 

Aldermaston 14.5.92, 15.5.92, 18.5.92 (PS). 

Heliothis armigera (Hiibn.) Scarce Bordered Straw 

Burghfield Common 6.8.92, first site record (DAY). 

Trichoplusia ni (Hiibn.) The Ni Moth 

Wash Common, Newbury 30.7.92, 6.8.92 (NC). 

Hypena crassalis (Fabr.) Beautiful Snout 
Harcourt Drive, Earley 29.6.92 (NMH). 



COLEOPTERA : BEETLES 

My thanks go to HHC for the usual preselection of records from the comprehensive list 
submitted by TDH. 

Dyschirius aeneus Dejean 

Nr Sonning Eye 22.5.91, one specimen running over bare mud on shore of river 

backwater (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Agonum fuliginosum Panzer 

Pamber Forest 1 A. 92, one specimen under bark of log near a pond within Oak 

woodland (TDH). Two old records (HHC). 

Agonum moestum Duftschmid 

Pamber Forest 1.4.92, one specimen under bark of log near a pond within Oak 

woodland (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Helophorus arvemicus Mulsant 

Nr Sonning Eye 22.5.91, one female found amongst fine plant debris on sandy shore of 

river backwater (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Cercyon quisquilius L. 

Leighton Park School 24.5.92, one specimen attracted to mercury vapour lamp set up 
on flat roof of building (3.3 m above ground level) in parkland, at 22.30 hrs (TDH). 
One old local record (HHC). 

Abraeus globosus Hoffmann 

Leighton Park 1.1.92, one in a piece of rotting wood from base of diseased but 

standing Oak within parkland (TDH). One old record (HHC). 

Ochthebius minimus Fabr. 

Pamber Forest 3.4.92, three specimens obtained by dipping a net into a pond within 

Oak woodland (TDH). One old local record (HHC). 



32 



Nargus wilkini Spence 

Pamber Forest 3.4.92, one male and one female on underside of log in clearing within 

Oak woodland (TDH). Two old records (HHC). 

Catops kirbii Spence 

Leighton Park 31.10.91, a male and female resting on hedgehog carcase placed in 

garden (TDH). Two old records (HHC). 

Catops tristis Panzer 

Pamber Forest 9.4.92, four specimens in pit-fall trap baited with fish heads, in clearing 

within Oak woodland (TDH). One old record (HHC). 

Scydmaenus rufus Muller 

Leighton Park 26. 10.91, two specimens found under bark of Oak log at edge of mixed 

deciduous wood (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Megarthrus sinuatocollis Boisduval & Lacordaire 

Nr Carter's Hill Farm nr Sindlesham 17.3.92, three specimens in straw in hay barn 

(TDH). One old local record (HHC). 

Phloeocharis subtilissima Mannerheim 

Whiteknights 26.2.92, one specimen under bark of Beech log in deciduous wood 

(TDH). No previous local record (HHC). 

Stenus bifoveolatus Gyllenhal 

Nr Hall Farm, Shinfield 19.12.91, two specimens obtained by breaking up stalks of 
Glyceria over a sheet, plants growing on margin of water-filled ditch on edge of marsh 
(TDH). No previous local record (HHC). 

Stenus binotatus Ljungh 

The Ridges, Finchampstead 8.5.91, one male obtained by treading J uncus into pond 

within mixed deciduous wood (TDH). No previous local record (HHC). 

Nudobius lentus Gravenhorst 

The Ridges, Finchampstead 8.5.91, four specimens under bark of fallen conifer tree in 
open mixed deciduous wood which contained planted conifers (TDH). No previous 
local record (HHC). 

Philonthus albipes Gravenhorst 

Leighton Park 1.11.91, one male by shaking decomposing plant matter over an 
upturned plastic dustbin lid, the plant matter had been dredged out of a pond and lay 
decomposing on the bank (TDH). One previous local record (HHC). 

Philonthus quisquiliarus Gyllenhal var. inquinatus Stephens 

Nr Sonning Eye 22.5.91, one male by trampling more or less bare mud on shore of 

river backwater (TDH). Two old local records (HHC). 

Quedius scintillans Gravenhorst 

Leighton Park 30.10.91, one obtained by shaking handfuls of compost (mostly grass 
stalks) over upturned plastic dustbin lid, compost taken from compost heap beside a 
tree-lined hedgerow in parkland (TDH). No previous local record (HHC). 

Quedius ventralis Aragona 

Whiteknights 27.12.91, two specimens found in red rotting wood of a branch hole on a 

solitary Horse Chestnut tree within parkland (TDH). Two old local records (HHC). 



33 



Tachyporus pallidas Sharp 

Nr Hall Farm, Shinfield 19.12.91, five specimens by breaking up and shaking stalks of 
Glyceria over a sheet, plants were growing on margin of water-filled ditch on edge of 
marsh (TDH). Two previous local records (HHC). 

Gyrophaena latissima Stephens 

Nr Hampstead Norris 27.2.92. Numerous specimens collected from a piece of 
Pseudotrametes gibbosa which was taken home and kept in a box. The fungus was 
growing on a deciduous tree stump at edge of deciduous wood (TDH). No previous 
local record (HHC). 

Leptusa fumida Kraatz 

Whiteknights 7.1.92, several specimens found under bark of fallen Horse Chestnut tree 
in a conifer plantation which contained a few mature Horse Chestnuts (TDH). No 
previous local record (HHC). 

Euplectus piceus Motschulsky 

Nr Cranbourne Tower, Windsor Forest 8. 1.92, one male inside piece of rotting wood at 

margin of mixed deciduous wood (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Euplectus sanguineus Denny 

Nr Carter's Hill Farm, nr Sindlesham 17.3.92. Numerous specimens obtained by 

shaking straw over a sheet, straw taken from hay barn (TDH). One local record 

(HHC). 

Bryaxis bulbifer Reichenbach 

Nr Hall Farm, Shinfield 19.12.91. One male obtained by breaking up and shaking 
stalks of Glyceria over a sheet, plants were growing on margin of water-filled ditch on 
edge of marsh (TDH). One old local record (HHC). 

Eucinetus meridionalis Laporte de Castelnau 

Heckfield Heath 10.6.92. Four specimens found resting on underside of a flat piece of 

wood in woodland (Oak, Birch and planted conifer) (TDH). No previous record 

(HHC). 

Prosternon tessellatum L. 

Burghfield Common 20.5.92. One specimen obtained by beating conifer tree (Pinus 
sp.) on the margin of open ride in mixed conifer, Oak and Birch wood (TDH). No 
previous record (HHC). 

Trixagus carinifrons (de Bonvouloir) 

Heckfield Heath 10.6.92. One specimen obtained by beating Oak tree in mixed wood 

(Oak, Birch and planted conifer) (TDH). Two old Berkshire records (HHC). 

Lampyris noctiluca (L.) Glow Worm 

Males and females Hartslock Reserve 25.6.92 to 30.6.92 (SH). 

Ochina ptinoides (Marsham) 

Leighton Park 24.5.92. Several specimens beaten from Ivy growing on trunk of 

Sycamore tree in tree-lined hedgerow at edge of parkland (TDH). One old local record 

(HHC). 

Anobium inexspectatum Lohse 

Leighton Park 20.6.92. One male obtained by beating Ivy growing on a Hawthorn tree 

in a tree-lined hedge at edge of parkland (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 



34 



Axi no tarsus marginalis Laporte de Castelnau 

Pamber Forest 19.6.92. One female obtained by beating plants of Hemlock Water- 
dropwort growing on verge of track near pond in Oak woodland (TDH). One local 
record (HHC). 

Carpophilus mutilatus Erichson 

Shirburn Hill 23.5.92. One female obtained by beating small Hawthorn in area of 

deciduous scrub at margin of deciduous woodland (TDH). No local record (HHC). 

Onwsita discoidea (Fabr.) 

Pamber Forest 3.4.92. One specimen resting on underside of Oak log in clearing in 

Oak wood (TDH). Two local records (HHC). 

Monotonia bicolor Villa 

Nr Carter's Hill Farm, nr Sindlesham 17.3.92. One specimen obtained by shaking 

straw over a sheet, straw taken from hay barn (TDH). One previous local record 

(HHC). 

Monotonia longicollis Gyllenhal 

Nr Carter's Hill Farm, nr Sindlesham 17.3.92. One specimen obtained by shaking 

straw over a sheet, straw taken from hay barn (TDH). One previous local record 

(HHC). 

Cryptolestes duplicatus Waltl 

Leighton Park 29. 12.91. One female under bark of diseased but standing Beech tree in 

deciduous wood (TDH). One previous local record (HHC). 

Psammoecus bipunctatus Fabr. 

Nr Hall Farm, Shinfield 19.12.91. Three specimens obtained by breaking up and 
shaking stalks of Glyceria sp. over a sheet, plants growing on margin of a water-filled 
ditch on the edge of a marsh (TDH). Two previous local records (HHC). 

Paramecosoma melanocephalum Herbst. 

Nr Hall Farm, Shinfield 19.12.91. One specimen under bark of log (probably Alder) 
on ground beside solitary diseased Alder on river bank in area of pastureland (TDH). 
No previous local record (HHC). 

Atomaria pulchra Erichson 

Pamber Forest 3.4.92. One mating pair and one other found resting on sawn surface of 

Oak log on ground in Oak woodland (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Ephistemus globulus Paykull 

Leighton Park 30.10.91. Two specimens obtained by shaking handfuls of compost 
(mostly grass stalks) over upturned plastic dustbin lid, compost taken from compost 
heap in garden (TDH). No previous local record (HHC). 

Diplocoelus fagi Guerin-Meneville 

Nr Hall Farm, Arborfield 23.3.92. Two specimens under bark of dead but standing 
Sycamore in a copse of Horse Chestnuts and conifers (TDH). Two previous Berkshire 
records (HHC). 

Clitostethus arcuatus Rossi 

Leighton Park 24.5.92. One specimen beaten from Ivy growing on trunk of Sycamore 
tree, in tree-lined hedgerow at edge of parkland. Further searching produced no more 
specimens (TDH). Two old records (HHC). 



35 



Scymnus suturalis Thunberg 

Burghfield Common 20.5.92. Several specimens beaten from conifers (Pinus sp.) on 

the margin of open ride in mixed conifer, Oak and Birch wood (TDH). One old record 

(HHC). 

Symbiotes latus Redtenbacher 

Leighton Park 2.1.92. One specimen under bark of diseased but standing Beech tree in 

deciduous wood (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Lathridius minimis L. 

Nr Carter's Hill Farm, nr Sindlesham 17.3.92. Six specimens obtained by shaking 

straw over a sheet, straw taken from hay barn (TDH). Two old local records (HHC). 

Enicmus histrio Joy & Tomlin 

Leighton Park 1.11.91. Six specimens obtained by shaking decomposing plant matter 
over upturned plastic dustbin lid, plant material had been dredged out of pond and left 
to decompose on the bank (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Cis bilamellatus Wood 

Leighton Park 26.10.91. Numerous specimens under bark of dead but still standing 

trunk of Horse Chestnut (probably) in mixed deciduous wood (TDH). One local record 

(HHC). 

Mycetophagus multipunctatus Fabr. 

Whiteknights 26.12.91. Five specimens under bark of dead but standing deciduous tree 

(probably Sycamore) at edge of deciduous wood (TDH). Two old records (HHC). 

Cicones undatus Guerin 

Nr Hall Farm nr Arborfield 23.3.92. Numerous specimens under bark of dead but 
standing sycamore in small copse of Horse Chestnuts, Sycamore, Ash and conifers. 
First recorded in the U.K. in 1984 (Windsor Great Park), presumably spreading (TDH) 
No previous record (HHC). 

Tetratoma desmaresti Latreille 

Heckfield Heath 6.11.91. One female under bark of branch of fallen Oak tree, in Oak 

and Birch wood (TDH). Two local records (HHC). 

hchnomera cyanea Fabr. 

Leighton Park 3.5.92. A piece of decomposing wood was collected from base of 
diseased but standing Oak tree in deciduous wood on 29.12.91. Wood kept in a tin, 
beetles emerged and found on 3.5.92 (TDH). One local record (HHC). 

Meloe rugosus Marsham 

Chambers Copse 20.4.85, Emmer Green 23.10.92 (DGN). No previous record 

(HHC). 

Phytoecia cylindrica L. 

Elmdown nr Skirmett 3.5.92. One specimen found resting on leaf of Stinging Nettle in 

tree-lined hedgerow (TDH). Two Berkshire records (HHC). 

Hydrothassa marginella L. 

Pamber Forest 9.4.92. One specimen obtained by dipping a net amongst aquatic 

vegetation at margin of pond in Oak wood (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 



36 



Aphthona euphorbiae Schrank 

Leighton Park 20.6.92. One male obtained by beating Ivy growing on Hawthorn tree 

in tree-lined hedge at edge of parkland (TDH). No previous record (HHC). 

Longitarsus nigwfasciatus Goeze 

Shirburn Wood, nr Watlington 23.5.92. Five specimens on leaves of Verbascum sp. on 
verge of track in open mixed deciduous wood on calcareous soil (TDH). No previous 
local record (HHC). 

Rhinomacer attelaboides (Fabr.) 

Pamber Forest 5.5.92. Two specimens by beating Pine tree in clearing in Oak wood 

(TDH). One previous local record (HHC). 

Anthribus nebulosus Forster 

Shirburn Hill, nr Watlington 23.5.92. One specimen obtained by beating a small 
Hawthorn tree in an area of deciduous scrub at margin of deciduous woodland (TDH). 
No previous local record (HHC). 

Apion simile Kirby.W. 

Burghfield Common 20.5.92. One specimen obtained by beating a Birch tree on 
margin of open ride in mixed conifer, Oak and Birch wood (TDH). Two previous local 
records (HHC). 

Strophosomus capitatus Degeer 

Pamber Forest 19.6.92. One specimen obtained by beating a Birch tree on edge of 

ride in Oak woodland (TDH). 

Doiytomus rufatus Bedel 

Pamber Forest 19.6.92. One specimen obtained by beating Willow tree in grassy 
clearing which supported Hazel scrub, within Oak woodland (TDH). One previous 
local record (HHC). 

Anthonomus humeralis Panzer 

Pamber Forest 19.6.92. One specimen obtained by beating a Hazel tree at edge of 

open ride in Oak woodland, possibly beaten from Crab Apple which had been beaten 

prior to the Hazel and overlooked on beating tray (TDH). No previous local record 

(HHC). 

Hylesinus oleiperda Fabr. 

Burghfield Common 20.5.92. One specimen found resting on my trousers after I had 

cycled from Reading (TDH). One old record (HHC). 

Hylastes attenuatus Erichson 

Burghfield Common 20.5.92. Two specimens were obtained by beating Birch trees on 
the margin of open ride in mixed conifer, Oak and Birch wood (TDH). No previous 
local record (HHC). 

Taphrorychus bicolor Herbst. 

Nr Ranger's Lodge, Windsor Forest 8.1.92. Several specimens under bark of fallen 

section of Beech tree in open mixed deciduous wood (TDH). No previous local record 

(HHC). 

Pityophthorus pubescens Marsham 

Pamber Forest 5.5.92. Several specimens obtained by beating Pine tree in grassy 

clearing within Oak woodland (TDH). No previous local record (HHC). 



37 



Orthotomicus laricis Fabr. 

Leighton Park 31.12.91. Five specimens were taken from galleries under the bark of a 

conifer log at the edge of deciduous wood (TDH). Two old local records (HHC). 

HYMENOPTERA : SAWFLIES, ICHNEUMONFLIES, ANTS, BEES & WASPS 

Rhadinoceraea micans (Klug) 

Caversham Court upper pond 1.5.92, first local record (HHC). 

Ephialtes manifestator (L.) 

Emmer Green 25.6.92, female probing trap nest in dead log (JHFN). 

Rhyssa persuasoria (L.) 

Benyon's Inclosure 22.5.92, many males flying along stack of cut Pine trunks and 
females ovipositing in emergence holes of the wood wasp Urocerus gigas (L.) see Baker 
(1992) (BRB). 

Trichrysis cyanea (L.) 

Emmer Green 12.6.92 resting on dead log (DGN). 

Dipogon variegatus (L.) 
Emmer Green 12.6.92 (DGN). 



DIPTERA : TRUE FLIES 

Syrphus ribesii (L.) 

Female on bag of buns outside Town Hall 6. 1 .92, a very common species but a most 

unusual date (HHC). 

Volucella inanis (L.) 

Hargrave Road, Maidenhead 13.6.92 to 22.6.92 (MVA) 

Merodon equestris (Fabr.) 

Hargrave Road, Maidenhead 17.5.92 to 25.5.92 (MVA). 

CONTRIBUTORS 

The Recorder expresses his thanks to: 

Martin Albertini (MVA); Hugh Carter (HHC); Nigel Cleere (NC); Neville & Mary 
Diserens (N&MD); Lt.Col. Gordon Eastwick-Field (GGE-F); Norman Hall (NMH); 
Thomas Harrison (TDH); S. Holden (SH); Ken Horswell (KMH); Betty Newman 
(BMN); David Notton (DGN); John Notton (JHFN); Peter Silver (PS); Des Sussex 
(DS); Dr Eric Watson (EVW); David Young (DAY). 

REFERENCES 

Baker, B.R. 1992. Emergence and pairing of Rhyssa persuasoria (L.) (Hymenoptera, 
Ichneumonidae). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 5(4): 185-185 

Bradley, J.D. & Fletcher, D.S. 1979. A Recorder's Log Book of British Butterflies and 

Moths. London, Curwen Press. 136pp. 



38 



Bradley, J.D. & Fletcher, D.S. 1986. Indexed List of British Butterflies and Moths. 

Orpington, Kent, Kedleston Press. 131pp. 

Kloet, G.S. & Hincks, W.D. 1964-1978. A Check List of British Insects. Handbook of 
British Insects Vol. 11. London, Royal Entomological Society. [1964, Pail 1: Small 
Orders and Hemiptera, 106pp; 1972, Part 2: Lepidoptera, 153pp (revised by Bradley, 
J.D., Fletcher, D.S. & Whalley, D.E.S.); 1977, Part 3: Coleoptera, 105pp (revised 
by R.D. Pope); 1978, Part 4: Hymenoptera, 159pp (revised M.G. Fitton et al; 1976, 
Part 5: Diptera and Siphonaptera, 139pp (revised K.G.V. Smith et al] 



RECORDER'S REPORT FOR OTHER INVERTEBRATES 1992 

Hugh H. Carter 

ARACHNIDA : SPIDERS 

Scytodes thoracica Latreille Spitting Spider 

In study, 19 Donkin Hill, Caversham 12.9.92, this was kept in a tube and fed flies to 
observe the spitting behaviour, before releasing (FEMC). 

Clubiona terrestris Westring 

Burnt Piatt Wood, Kingwood Common 19.9.92 (FEMC). 

Diaea dorsata (Fabricius) 

Burnt Piatt Wood, Kingwood Common 19.9.92, swept from Bracken (FEMC). 

Trochosa terricola Thorell 

Sulham Woods, in leaf litter, 4.10.92 (FEMC). 

Tegcnaria parietina (Fourcroy) 

Dead male indoors at Caversham Court March 1992 (HHC). 

Metellina mengei (Blackwall) 

Burnt Piatt Wood, Kingwood Common 19.9.92 (FEMC). 

Larinoides cormitus (Clerck) 
Crowsley Park 27.10.92 (FEMC). 

AgaJenatea redii (Scopoli) 
Pamber Heath 21.9.92 (FEMC). 

Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck) 

10 Northbrook Road, May 92 (HHC); Sulham Woods 4.10.92 (FEMC). 

Cyclosa conica (Pallas) 

Wilderness, Whiteknights 8.8.92 (FEMC). 

Linyphia hortensis (Sundevall) 
Heath End Wood 31.8.92 (FEMC). 

Linyphia montana (Clerck) 
Sulham woods 4.10.92 (FEMC). 



39 



Microlinyphia impigra (Pickard-Cambridge) 

2 immature females Hill's Meadow 6.2.92, a new record for the Reading area (HHC). 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Hugh Carter (HHC), Frances Cook (FEMC). 

REFERENCES 

British Arachnological Society (1992). Checklist of British Spiders. British 
Arachnological Society - Members' Handbook. 1 lpp 

RECORDER'S REPORT FOR VERTEBRATES 1992 

Hugh H. Carter 

PISCES : FISH 

Leuciscus cephalus (L.) Chub 

Ten in Holy Brook at Central Library 16.6.92, ranging in size from 150-350 mm. 
About 10 in Emm Brook at Dinton Pastures, ranging in size up to 250 mm, 17.7.92. 
About 20 at Blake's Lock turbine house, ranging in size up to 600 mm (HHC). 

Salmo truttdL. Trout 

One with Chub at Blake's Lock (HHC). 

AMPHIBIA 

Triturus helveticus Raz. Palmate Newt 

1 in basement of 11 Prospect Street, Reading (Mrs Payne) removed to pond at 
Caversham Court 17.6.92. 

Rana temporariaL. Frog 

Spawn in pond, 350 m east of Coach and Horses, Binfield Heath 20.3.92, tadpoles 
there 28.3.92. Spawn in lower pond, none in upper pond at Greenmore Hill, 
Woodcote 31.3.92 (HHC). Frogs at Netherleigh, Pangbourne ranging in age from this 
year's young to about 3 years old (CF). 

Bufo bufo (L.) Toad 

One on Old Peppard Road 16.3.92, 6 dead there and on adjoining Lowfield Road 
17.3.92, 3 dead in Kiln Road near Coach and Horses, about 10 pairs and about 10 
unmated in Coach and Horses pond 20.3.92. The last were all small, probably 
breeding for the first time at a site which has recently suffered two disasters. No toads 
there 28.3.92, but about a litre of toad spawn. No spawn in upper pond, spawn in 
lower pond but much of it piebald and coated with algae at Greenmore Pond, Woodcote 
31.3.92. Toad 30 mm long at 10 Northbrook Road, Caversham Park 26.9.92 (HHC). 
Toad 75 mm long South Street, Caversham 22.4.92 (MJC). Often disturbed in 
vegetable garden at Netherleigh, Pangbourne (CF). 



40 



REPTILIA 

Anguis fragilis (L.) Slow Worm 

One adult and 2 juveniles, 104 Blenheim Road, Caversham 25.7.92 (MC per MJC), 

Bred in compost heap, Netherleigh, Pangbourne (CF). 

Natrix nattix (L.) Grass Snake 

One at 104 Blenheim Road, Caversham 25.7.92 (MC per MJC). 



MAMMALIA 

Sorex araneus (L.) Common Shrew 

One dead Blackhouse Wood, Caversham 28.6.92 (MJC). 

Talpa europaea L. Mole 

Many molehills at Marsh Lock 12.1.92. Moles active beside London Road, 

Wokingham 31.7.92 (HHC). 

Erinaceus europaeus L. Hedgehog 

Six living juveniles, 9 adults dead on roads in Caversham Park Village, April to 

October, December 1992 (HHC, EMC, MJC). 1 dead on road Emmer Green 18.5.92, 

Tilehurst Road 20.5.92, Caversham 13.6.92 and 25.6.92, East Hendred 5.9.92, west of 

Hurst 14.10.92. Frequent at Netherleigh, Pangbourne (CF). 

Arvicola amphibius (L.) Water Vole 

One seen, several holes, Thames Side Promonade 12.1.92 (HHC and MJC) 

Lepus capensis Pallas Hare 

One dead on the Portway 9.5.92. One by Binfield Heath Lane north of Bishopsland 
Farm 7.7.92. One in field by New Road, Sonning 5.8.92 (HHC). Two Nott Wood 
22.3.92 (N&MD). 

Oryctolagus cimiculus (L.) Rabbit 

Juvenile on Peppard Road, 1 at Greenmore Hill; 1 at Kennylands, Sonning Common; 1 
dead on road near Sonning Common, all 31.3.92. Juvenile on Peppard Road, about 65 
at Hardwick Stud 10.5.92. Two dead on Peppard Road 3.6.92; 11, and 1 dead, Henley 
Road 8.6.92; 2 north of Bishopsland Farm 7.7.92; 1 dead New Road, Sonning 29.7.92; 
1 east of Hurst 31.7.92; 2 dead on road near Maidenhatch 31.8.92; 1 dead on road near 
East Hendred 5.9.92; 1 dead on road east of Hurst 10.9.92; 1 dead on Road north of 
Bishopsland Farm 22.10.92; 1 in Clay Lane, Wokingham 23.10.92; 1 on Peppard 
Common, 1 dead on Peppard Road 31.10.92 (HHC). Two at Westleaze Cottage, 4 at 
Bix Manor Farm 22.3.92 (N&MD). 

Rattus norvegicus (L.) Brown Rat 

Juvenile dead at Row Lane Farmhouse, Dunsden 8.3.92, 4 dead on Binfield Heath 

Lane north of Bishopsland Farm, 1 dead at Kennylands, Sonning Common 12.9.92 

(HHC). 

Apodemus sylvaticus (L.) Wood Mouse 

Seven feeding on apples at Cockney Hill, trapped late January 1992 (AB). 

Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin Grey Squirrel 

One Marsh Lock Car Park 4.1.92, 2 at Caversham Court 13.1.92, 1 Old Peppard Road 
3.2.92, 1 dead Caversham Park Road 12.3.92. One dead Peppard Road, 5 juveniles in 
Chiltern Lane, Caversham 30.4.92. 1 dead Peppard Road 3.6.92, 1 alive there 4.6.92. 
One dead south of Checkendon 14.6.92, 1 dead Emmer Green 24.6.92, 1 dead at 



41 



Charvil 10.7.92, 1 on Warren House Road near Wokingham 24.7.92, 1 dead Lowfield 
Road 29.7.92, 1 Old Copse, Sonning Common 27.9.92, 2 College Wood, Goring 
Heath 5.9.92, 1 dead on Caversham Park Road 6.9.92, 1 at Charvil near Wee Waif 
15.9.92, 1 raiding litter bin at Prospect Park 12.10.92, 1 dead at Rose Hill, Caversham 
31.10.92, 1 dead Lowfield Road, Caversham 3.11.92, 2 south of Blackhouse Wood, 
Caversham Park 21.12.92, 1 in lane from Caversham Park to Littlestead Green 
30.12.92 (HHC). 

Dama dama (L.) Fallow Deer 

Footprint by pond east of Coach and Horses, Binfield Heath 11.3.92; footprint, most 
probably of this species, in Clay Lane, Wokingham 23.10.92 (HHC). Four at Swan 
Wood 22.3.92 (N&MD). 

Capreolus capreolus (L.) Roe Deer 

Two at 42 Long Lane, Tilehurst 6.11.92 (C&FB). 

Muntiacus reevesi Ogilby Muntjac Deer 

One crossing Old Peppard Road 5.7.92 (MJC); 1 at Balmore Ride, Caversham 31.7.92 
(MC and MJC); 1 Rumerhedge Wood 26.10.92 (N&MD). 

Vulpes vulpes (L.) Fox 

One dead on A4074 near Dorchester 6.2.92 (HHC); 1 flushed by dog at Hardwick Stud 
10.5.92 (MJC); 1 dead on road north of Goring 5.9.92 (HHC); nightly visitor at 
Netherleigh, Pangbourne (CF). 

Lutra Intra (L.) Otter 

Unconfirmed and doubtful report at Southcote Lock end of February. 

Meles meles (L.) Badger 

One dead on Shinfield Road south of River Loddon 5.2.92; 1 dead on road near 

Twyford 9.10.92 (HHC); 2 at Cockney Hill, end of February (AB). 

Mustela enninea L. Stoat 

One Whistley Green 9.5.92 (N&MD); 1 dead on road between Reading and 
Wokingham July 1992, 1 dead on road south of Hurst 29.7.92, 1 dead on Peppard 
Road near Bishopsland Farm (HHC). Stoat or Weasel attacked by dog near Balmore, 
Caversham late September 1992 (MJC). 

Mustela nivalis L. Weasel 

One Winterbourne 10.5.92 (N&MD); 1 in Blackhouse Wood, Caversham 28.6.92 

(MJC). 



CONTRIBUTORS 

My thanks are due to the following contributors: 

Alan Brickstock (AB), Catherine & Frank Butcher (C&FB), Elizabeth Carter (EMC), 
Mary Carter (MJC), Marion Cunningham (MC), Neville & Mary Diserens (N&MD), 
Clare Frank (CF), Mrs Payne. 



42 



THE WEATHER AT READING DURING 1992 

Dr Russell D. Thompson F.R.Met.Soc. 
Department of Geography, University of Reading 

1992 was generally a very mixed but significant year weather-wise since, after five 
consecutive dry years, it proved to be the wettest year for a decade. The first half of the 
year continued the dry spell (the driest winter for at least 80 years) but monthly 
aggregates exceeded 100 mm in August, September and November and this wet spell 
brought considerable relief to the local water authority. For most of the year, 
temperatures were at or above average but below-average values for January, October 
(especially) and December counteracted this warmth and gave an annual mean 
temperature which was very close to normal. Sunshine hours were 15% below normal 
making it the dullest year since 1939. Indeed, only one month (May) recorded over 200 
hours of sunshine compared with four months in the brilliant year of 1990. 

The following monthly weather summaries are based on the table of weather records 
provided (Table 1), along with mean values for the station over the period 1971-1990 
(Table 2). All these data have been kindly provided by the Department of Meteorology 
at Reading University. 

January was a very dry and calm month, with anticyclonic weather giving a mean 
barometric pressure of 1030.7, which was the highest for any month of the year since 
before 1960. Consequently precipitation was only 24% of the monthly average, the 
lowest aggregate since 1987 and the second lowest since 1921. The number of rain days 
was the lowest for any January since 1950. As is expected with winter anticyclones, 
overcast conditions and fogs persisted so that sunshine totals were 12% below average, 
making it the dullest January for 15 years. The stable weather reduced wind speeds 
with the main velocity at 0900 hours the lowest since 1964. Temperature-wise, the 
month was very mixed with above-average values in the first week (with a maximum of 
13°C on the 5th) plummeting by the third week. This cold spell produced the lowest 
temperatures and highest number of air frosts since 1987. 

February continued the dry, dull anticyclonic weather since the main barometric 
pressure was the highest since 1975. Precipitation was consequently 48% below 
average since the blocking high diverted our rain-bringing depressions further north 
than normal. The anticyclonic gloom continued though with the highest number of fogs 
recorded since 1975 and sunshine hours were 20% below normal. Fortunately, 
temperatures remained well above average since the location of the anticyclone 
maintained a mild west to southwesterly airflow over Reading, to prohibit the 'big- 
freeze' easterlies of the previous February (ie only 45 hours below 0°C, compared with 
200 hours in February 1991). 

March was a mild, very dull month with rainfall remaining below average. 
Temperatures were almost 2°C above normal, with only one air frost recorded in the 
month. Precipitation was about 20% of normal so accentuating the chronic water deficit 
in the area. The month, however, will be remembered for the overcast gloomy weather 
since the total hours of sunshine recorded (46% below average) were only 15.6% of 
that possible in March, the lowest in the Reading area since before 1939. 



43 



April ended the dry spell at Reading with more disturbed, cyclonic weather recorded. 
In fact, the barometric pressure on the first day of the month was the lowest observed 
on any April day since 1972. For only the second time in the last nine months, the 
monthly rainfall was above normal with the aggregate some 46% above average. 
Temperatures remained slightly above average due to the predominance of south- 
southwesterly winds. Once again, for the fourth consecutive month, sunshine was 
below normal (by 21%) making it the dullest April since 1979. By now, local residents 
were fed up of the continuing dull, gloomy conditions and the only compensation was 
the associated reduction in skin cancer risks! 



May ended all our weather frustrations and turned out to be a marvellous month, with 
dry, hot and (at long last) sunny weather. This complete atmospheric turn-around 
emphasises the vagaries of British weather and the more-conducive conditions of 
summer anticyclones. Temperatures were about 3°C above normal and there were 16 
days on which maximum values exceeded 20°C, with a peak reaching 25.8°C on the 
19th (the second highest recorded in May since before 1960). Rainfall was some 20% 
below normal and indeed most (68%) of the month's aggregate was recorded during the 
last four days to avoid an even more critical water deficiency especially for local 
gardeners. Sunshine hours were 34% above average and indeed represented 54% of the 
total hours possible in May. The month ended up the third sunniest May in Reading 
since 1939 and the sunniest for any month since May 1989 (even exceeding the super 
sunny months of the 1990 summer). 

June was a pleasant, summer month with warm, dry, calm and sunny weather. There 
were two, short hot periods around the middle and end of the month and the warmest 
day of the year was observed on the 29th (the highest recorded for any June day since 
the summer of 1976). Aggregate rainfall was low with only 42% of the monthly 
average recorded, especially during the first week of June. Sunshine totals were slightly 
above average and represented an appreciated 40% of the total expected at this time of 
the year. 

July recorded very disappointing weather, particularly after the excellent start to the 
summer. Temperatures remained close to average throughout the month, although a 
warm spell did occur during the last few days reaching 27.6°C on the 3 1st. Rainfall 
was 28% above normal and was evenly spread over the first 3 weeks of the month 
which helped local gardens. The outstanding features of the month's weather were the 
dull, overcast conditions with sunshine totals some 34% below normal, representing a 
pathetic 27% of the total expected. Indeed, it turned out to be the dullest July since 
1965. 



August proved to be a complete disaster weather-wise (so different from August 1991) 
and it was generally dull, wet and windy to ruin the plans and hopes of holiday makers 
in the local area and to encourage the growth of garden weeds! Temperatures were very 
close to average but it was a month of extremes, with a warm first half counteracted by 
a cool second half. Indeed minimum temperatures plunged to 6.6°C on the 31st (the 
lowest for a decade) and a ground frost was just avoided. Sunshine hours were 16% 
below average and wind speed measurements at 0900 were the highest before 1960. 
However, the most outstanding weather feature was the heavy rain and the interminable 
number of rain days. Aggregate rainfall exceeded 100 mm and was indeed almost 
double that expected, making it the wettest August since 1977 and the third wettest 
since 1921. 



44 



September was a most remarkable month with the first few weeks experiencing dry, 
mild weather followed by a very wet and warm spell after the 21st. During this spell, 
temperatures exceeded 22 °C on three days, with the warmest day of the month on the 
26th (22.7°C). Overall, the temperatures for the month were close to normal. The very 
wet spell was dominated by a colossal deposition of 76 mm rain on the 22nd, in a 13 
hour period. This was the heaviest fall of rain for any day of the year since 
measurements started at Reading in 1921 (with 60.5 mm on the 11th June 1970 the 
second heaviest). To cap an eminently forgettable month (especially when compared 
with September 1991), sunshine hours were down on average by 18%, to present the 
dullest September since 1984. 

October did not produce the hoped for 'Indian Summer' weather (which had taken 
place in 1991) and had failed to start in September. Indeed, even though rainfall and 
sunshine were close to normal, temperatures were more than 2°C below average and 
represented the second lowest recorded since 1921 (following 1974). Consequently, the 
number of air frosts and ground frosts was well above average, the highest since 1980 
and 1951 (respectively). 

November was a very wet, windy, dull and mild month with unsettled, cyclonic 
conditions dominating the weather patterns. Temperatures were 1°C above average 
despite a cold spell in the middle of the month (with a grass minimum of -8.1°C 
recorded on the 14th), although the air temperature remained below freezing for only 8 
hours during this spell. Sunshine hours were well below normal (by 21%) for the eighth 
month of this year. However, the main feature of the month's weather was the 
incessant rainfall (recorded on nearly every day from the 13th onwards). Indeed, the 
number of rain days was 7 above average, the highest for almost two decades. 
Aggregate rainfall exceeded 100 mm for the third month this year (for the first time in 
40 years) and was more than twice the average total. 

December was a month of two distinctive halves, the first half being cyclonic with 
mild, stormy, dull and wet weather. Conversely, the second half was anticyclonic with 
cool, calm, clear and dry weather. Overall, the month recorded temperatures some 1°C 
below normal, precipitation 25% below normal (the driest month since June) and 
sunshine hours close to normal. Eight air frosts and 9 ground frosts occurred during the 
cold, dry spell over the last 11 days of the month, with the lowest air minimum 
(-6.6°C) and grass minimum (-11.9°C) recorded on the 30th. 



45 



POSTSCRIPT 

It is useful to summarise the 1992 weather in the Reading area with a close look at the 
seasonal patterns indicated in Table 3 (again based on data from the Department of 
Meteorology). 

Winter was decidedly anticyclonic with the so-called 'blocking high* dominating the 
south of Britain and giving Reading a mean barometric pressure considerably above 
average. However, maritime westerly air circulations were associated with this 
anticyclonic dominance (not the 'Big Freeze' continental easterlies). Consequently, 
temperatures were generally very close to average, with mean and maximum values 
slightly positive (cf. to Winter 1990/91 means some 1°C below normal). The 
anticyclones were responsible for very dry weather (with rain-bringing depressions 
diverted northwards), with precipitation only some 29% of normal. As a result, the 
winter was the driest since before 1920 and probably the driest this century. 
Anticyclonic 'gloom' characterised the weather since it was overcast and dull for long 
periods of time. Consequently, hours of sunshine were about 9% below average. 

Spring experienced temperatures between 1.8° and 2.7°C above average, mainly due 
to the very warm May weather. In fact, the mean temperature of 10.5 °C was the sixth 
highest recorded since 1921, following 1928 (11.6°C) and 1945, 1943, 1952 and 1949. 
Similarly, even though sunshine hours were within 4% of the seasonal average, this 
respectability was only brought about by an extremely sunny May following overcast, 
gloomy March and April. The spring rainfall was very close to normal. 

Summer was a very poor, disappointing season although with a good June following a 
brilliant May, prospects for a hot dry summer looked bright. However, even though 
temperatures were close to normal during July and early August, a cool second half of 
August spoilt temperatures somewhat. Even so, temperatures remained between 0.4° 
and 1.0°C above normal making this summer the eleventh warmest since 1950. The dry 
June was followed by above average July rains and August deluges. The rainfall 
aggregate for the summer of 1992 was 26% above average and the August total in 
excess of 100 mm (double the normal rainfall) completely ruined the weather for the 
school holidays. The disturbed cyclonic weather of July and August was associated with 
very dull conditions and below-average sunshine totals. Overall, despite a reasonably 
sunny June, the season's sunshine was 19% below average, making it the fifth dullest 
summer since 1956 (after 1956, 1965, 1968 and 1958). 



Autumn continued the unsettled summer weather and the desired 'Indian Summer' 
failed to develop. Although temperatures remained above average in September and 
November, the very cold October weather caused the season's overall mean 
temperatures to be between 0.2° and 0.6°C below normal (the fifth coldest Autumn 
since 1960, after 1974, 1972, 1965 and 1975). Precipitation was considerably above 
average mainly due to the deluges in September and November, which both recorded 
aggregates above 100 mm, which were double the average totals. This season was the 
wettest since 1976 and the sixth wettest since 1921 (after 1974, 1960, 1976, 1935 and 
1948). Sunshine was sadly lacking throughout the Autumn with the total number of 
hours 15% below normal, making it the seventh dullest since 1956 (after 1976, 1968, 
1984, 1963, 1983 and 1956). 



46 



TAnLft 1 



WEATHER RECORDS: 199? 



STATION: READING UNIVERSITY (MUTE KNIGHTS) 







Jan. 


Pcb. 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. . 


Dec. 


Year 


Mean 


Max. 


6.6 


9.0 


11.1 


13.1 


19.8 


21.7 


21.2 


20.7 


17.9 


11.8 


11.1 


7.1 


11.3 


Daily 


Min. 


1.3 


2.1 


1.8 


5.1 


9.2 


11.0 


13.2 


12.6 


10.5 


1.7 


1.5 


1.1 


6.7 


Temperatures 


Mean 


1.0 


5.5 


8.0 


9.1 


11.5 


16.1 


17.2 


16.7 


11.2 


8.3 


7.9 


1.1 


10.5 


•c 


Range 


5.3 


6.9 


6.3 


8.0 


10.6 


10.7 


8.0 


8.0 


7.1 


. 7.1 


6.9 


6.0 


7.6 




Extreme Max. 


13-0 


13-0 


11.1 


17.0 


25.0 


29.9 


27.6 


26.8 


22.7 


16.7 


15.7 


13-2 


29.9 


Extreme 


Date 


5th 


27th 


20.22 


18.20 


19th 


29th 


3>3t 


1st 


26th 


2nd 


6th 


2nd 


29/6 


Temperatures 


Extreme Min. 


-7.5 


-1.1 


-1.2 


-0.6 


2.1 


7.3 


8.2 


6.6 


6.5 


-1.8 


-1.9 


-6.6 


-7.5 


•c 


Date 


21th 


20th 


9th 


5th 


3rd 


19th 


20th 


31st 


5th 


17th 


11th 


30th 


21/1 




Extreme Crass 


-10.1 


-8.5 


-6.5 


-6.2 


-3-8 


0.1 


0.1 


0.9 


-0.1 


-8.8 


-8.1 


-11.9 


-11.9 




Min. 






























Date 


22nd 


20th 


9th 


5th 


3rd 


10th 


28th 


31st 


11th 


17th 


11th 


30th 


30/12 


Days with air frost 


n 


9 


1 


1 





O 











3 


1 


1 1 


10 


Days with ground frost 


19 


19 


8 


10 


1 


O 








1 


19 


11 


21 


117 


Hours at pr 1 


clow 0.0°C 


127 


15.5 


2 


0.5 

















16 


8 


122 


320.5 


Sunsltinc 


Sum 


19.1 


55.5 


57.5 


122.6 


259.5 


195.7 


136.5 


113.6 


118.0 


92.0 


56.8 


10.2 


1335 


Hours 


% of possible 


10.7 


19.0 


15.6 


29.6 


51.0 


39.6 


27.1 


31.9 


31.1 


27.7 


21.0 


19.3 


29.7 




Daily Mean 


1.6 


1.9 


1.9 


1.1 


8.1 


6.5 


1.1 


1.6 


3-9 


2.9 


1.9 


1.5 


3-6 


Precipitation Amount in mm 


13.8 


21.5 


13.1 


60. 1 


10.3 


21.6 


52.2 


109-7 


113.5 


57.7 


101.5 


17.8 


686.1 


Rain Days 


6 


11 


25 


15 


8 


7 


13 


20 


16 


11 


20 


11 


163 


Maximum rain in one day " 


3:3 


6.9 


6.9 


16.3 


15.6 


6.5 


15.1 


22.8 


76.3 


25.1 


13.1 


10.1 


76.3 


Date 


8th 


10th 


25th 


10th 


28th 


l3t 


20th 


13th 


22nd 


19th 


11th 


18th 


22/9 


Longest run of consecutive 




























rain days 


3 


5 


1 1 


7 


3 


2 


1 


7 


1 


5 


7 


5 


11 


Longest run of consecutive 


























March 


dry days 


15 


8 


2 


1 


13 


12 


5 


1 


3 


10 


5 


11 


15 

Jan 


Snow or sleet days 





2 





1 























2 


5 


Days with snow lying 





1 
































1 


Visibility 


Days with fog 
at 0900 CMT 


5 


7 





























1 


16 


Thunderstorm 


Days of thunder 














2 


1 


2 


1 


1 











10 


Activity 


Days of hail 








2 


1 


























3 


Barometric 


Mean 


1030.7 


1023.7 


1011.9 


1011.8 


1018.6 


1017.7 


1016.7 


101 1.1 


1015.0 


1011.0 


1012.3 


1017.0 


1016.7 


Pressure 


Highest 


1015.5 


1038.1 


1035.0 


1026.9 


1037.2 


1030.8 


1030.7 


1021.5 


1025.3 


1029.5 


1032.5 


1011.5 


1011.5 


mb 


Date 


27th 


19th 


9th 


16th 


16th 


17th 


20th 


6th 


12th 


8th 


6th 


20th 


27/1 




Lowest 


997.3 


1006.6 


980.1 


906.1 


1001.1 


1006.8 


1005.9 


905.6 


1005.7 


990.0 


989-7 


981.6 


980. 1 




Date 


9th 


9th 


3ist 


9th 


9th 


lot 


12th 


30 th 


22nd 


25th 


11th 


1th 


31/3 



DAILY MEAN DURATION 
POSSIBLE AT 
LATITUDE 51 a 


rn 

> 
z 

cr 

> 

H 
O 

z 


SUNSHINE 

(No. of HOURS) 


WET DAYS 

(I .Omm or MORE) 


RAIN DAYS 
(0.2mm or MORE) 


> 
73 

n 

> 

H 

rn 

53 

> 

z 
-n 

> 

3 
3 


O 

a 
n 

3 


UI 

a 
n 

3 


UI 

G 
o 

3 


O 

r> 

3 


G 

n 

3 


c 

H 
m 

•o 

UI 

o 

3 


1 
> 

50 

> 
Z 

<r> 
m 

H 

m 


rn 

> 
z 

-»■ 
z 

T 

H 

rn 

•5 


> 

Z 

> 
X 

H 

n 

->» 


> 
z 

-} 
m 

> 
-J 
G 
73 

n 


— • ~r 

73 n 
n > 

CO z 
UI 

G CO 
50 > 

rn 50 

o 

rn 
H 
50 

o 




CO 
UI 


CO 

G 


UI 
vO 


- 


3v 


UI 
30 

as 


as 
as 


UI 
UI 


UI 

G 


O 


UI 
UI 


UI 


UI 

«o 


UI 


G 


ro 


o 

a> 
ro 


Cm 

> 

z 


Q 

o 

UI 


rs> 
CO 


3> 

vO 

UI 


CO 


UI 


UI 


UI 


UI 

fs» 




UI 
vO 


UI 


ro 

vO 


3> 


Nl 


UI 


ro 


G 
UI 
ro 


m 

CO 


*-* 

CO 
Cfv 


UI 
UI 


o 

UI 


ro 


as 


UI 

ut 


ON 


as 

UI 


as 


UI 
UI 


vO 


UI 

— 


r-O 


ro 
c* 


o 

CO 


a* 

UI 


O 

G 


2 
> 
50 


UI 

CO 
UI 


UI 

vO 


UI 

UI 

as 


vo 


UI 


•C- 


CO 

a 


CO 


30 


-o 

vO 


CO 

a 


CO 
00 


CO 

UI 


G 


ro 


30 

ro 


O 
UI 
00 


> 
13 

73 


UI 

UI 


5"i 

rsl 

5* 


vO 
UI 


G 


£» 


UI 

' G 

sO 


o 

UI 


^» 


»j 


30 




UI 

as 


UI 


O 


3V 
'ro 


as 


G 

^* 

SO 


> 
•< 


c* 

UI 


a* 

UI 

o 


CO 
vO 

a 


>0 


- 


UI 


UI 




30 


UI 


UI 
vO 


rO 


ro 


vO 

■o 


vO 


UI 


G 

as 

UI 


G 
Z 


3"V 

O 
UI 


cr> 

en 
en 


ISJ 

O 

a\ 

UI 


*o 


— 


G 
Cf\ 


UI 


as 

UI 


G 


■"■J 
UI 


30 


-O 
UI 


vO 


ro 
ro 


ro 

vO 


G 


G 
ro 


h 


UI 


3* 


UI 

b 


CO 


- 


UI 

ro 
C* 


UI 


as 

CO 


as 
o 


■-4 

G 


•-a 


30 


^3 


vO 


IO 


as 


G 
3\ 
Ov 


> 

G 


ro 

UI 


CO 
fsj 


o> 

u> 


30 


— 


ui 


UI 

G 


UI 


30 


UI 


vO 


UI 


CO 


-O 


30 


G 


^j 


rn 

-3 


UI 


UI 
UI 


vO 


G 


*> 


3* 

CO 


Ui 

G 




O 


G 
30 


— 


o 




^«l 


UI 


30 


UI 
ro 


3 


30 

3 


ro 


vO 


vO 


Ui 


UI 

Ui 

3% 


O 
u< 


vO 


30 


~j 


3> 


UI 
vO 


3> 


UI 


- 


3v 
VO 


G 

UI 

O 


Z 
O 
< 


33 

b 


ui 


30 


vO 


W 


5N 


vO 


■3N 
CO 


as 
ro 


UI 

rvj 


UI 


,5> 
ro 


UI 
UI 


ro 


33 


UI 
UI 


UI 


rn 


ro 
ro 


vO 


UI 
UI 

ro 


ro 


Ui 


3> 
Si 

ISi 


o 


•^ 


UI 


G 


o 

CO 


G 
ro 


30 


3> 


o 


— 


G 

UI 


rn 

> 

50 



cr 

2 
o 

3 



P 

b 

Q- 

»u 

3 
3 
C 

s 

3" 

n> 

rs 

VO co 

o- 

C 

3 
< 

i-i 

to 

I"* 

O 



50 



3 
0Q 



3" 

(TO 

3* 



Table 3 Seasonal Weather data, Reading (Average for 1971-90 ) 
A) Winter 1991/92 (Dec, Jan., Feb) 



Mean barometric pressure 

Mean temperature 

Mean max. temperature 

Mean min. temperature 

Aggregate rainfall 

Rain days 

Hours of sunshine 



1991/92 


Averaqe 


1027.7 mb 


1014.4 mb 


4.7°C 


4.6°C 


7.7°C 


7.5°C 


1.6°C 


1.7°C 


47.6 mm 


163 . 3 mm 


24 


44 


158.4 


173.9 



B) Spring 1992 (Mar ., April ., May) 



Mean barometric pressure 

Mean temperature 

Mean max. temperature 

Mean min. temperature 

Aggregate rainfall 

Rain days 

Hours of sunshine 



1992 

1015.1 mb 
10.5°C 
14.7° 



6 
143 
40 
439 



4°C 
mm 



Averaqe 

1014.9 mb 
8.7°C 
12.0°C 
4.5°C 
146 . 5 mm 
43 
455.3 



C) Summer 1992 (June., July., Aug) 

1992 



Mean barometric pressure 

Mean temperature 

Mean max. temperature 

Mean min. temperature 

Aggregate rainfall 

Rain days 

Hours of sunshine 



1015, 


.2 


mb 


16, 


.8 C 


>C 


21, 


.2°C 


12, 


,3°C 


183, 


.5 


mm 


40 






475, 


.8 





Averaqe 


1016. 


.8 mb 


16. 


.1°C 


20. 


.8°C 


11, 


,3°C 


145, 


. 1 mm 


33 




588, 


.5 



D) Autumn 1992 (Sept ., Oct ., Nov . ) 



Mean barometric pressure 

Mean temperature 

Mean .max . temperature 

Mean min .temperature 

Aggregate rainfall 

Rain days 

Hours of sunshine 



1012 



1992 



Averaqe 



7 mb 


1016 


.0 mb 


10.1°C 




10.6°C 


13.7°C 




14.3°C 


6.6°C 




6.8°C 


275 . 7 mm 




166 . 5 mm 


47 




37 


266.8 




313.5